Among flower growers, a plant with original decorative foliage is popular – aglaonema. Home care is no more difficult than other colors. It consists in watering, creating an optimal microclimate. This article describes in detail all the secrets of caring for aglaonema.
Plant of the aroid family. Came to us from the tropics of East India. In the wild, it settles closer to the water – along the banks of reservoirs. A small herbaceous perennial that grows up to 70 cm in height. Differs in slow growth. The trunk is visible only in adult specimens, sometimes branching off at the base.
Leaves up to 15 cm, oblong, lanceolate, green with stripes and specks of different colors. A distinct selection of the midrib is characteristic. Light green, almost white, reddish, yellowish colors are widespread.
In natural conditions, it blooms with inconspicuous small flowers. They gather in a cob-shaped inflorescence. The apartment blooms very rarely. The fruit is a red berry. One berry contains one seed. The seeds can be used for propagation. They ripen for a long time – about six months. As a houseplant, aglaonema is valued for its high decorativeness of leaves.
Important! Aglaonema is poisonous! They work with her only with gloves. When in contact with mucous membranes, it causes swelling, loss of voice, painful sensations. It is not recommended to grow a flower in apartments where there are children and pets.
Each indoor flower has features of growth and development. Aglaonema is no exception.
- The size. All varieties are compact. The tallest varieties do not exceed 70 cm in adulthood.
- Growth rate. It grows slowly. Even with good care, it grows no more than 5-6 new leaves per year.
- Life expectancy. It can live for a long time, but it quickly loses its decorative effect. Already in the third year, variegated varieties change color, become faded, stretch out. The old bush is replaced by rooting the apical cutting.
- Bloom. In the cramped conditions of the apartment, it rarely blooms. The decorativeness of flowers is low. Small flowers arranged in a spiral are collected on the cob. The fruit is a red berry. Gives decorative effect to the plant.
Interesting! The plant is poisonous, but it also has useful properties. Aglaonema cleans the air well – removes harmful impurities from it, copes with microbes and bacteria. During active growth, the plant releases aeroins. Their increased content in the air causes a surge of strength, increases efficiency and stress resistance.
Aglaonema needs minimal care – it is a hardy, picky plant. But they recommend following simple rules.
- Temperature. The optimal room temperature is considered to be in the range of 18-25C. In winter, it should not drop below 18C.
- Lighting. Grows well in partial shade. He does not like bright light, they shade with tulle from the rays of the sun. A little more light is needed for varieties with silver marble leaves.
- Watering. Aglaonema loves moisture. Water it regularly, monitor the humidity, do not allow the earthen coma to dry out completely. In winter, the frequency of watering is reduced.
- Humidity. Create high humidity conditions. The plant is sprayed with warm soft water. They are periodically washed with warm water from the shower.
- The soil. The soil for aglaonema is used loose and fertile. Ready-made soil mixtures are suitable for deciduous plants. They independently prepare the soil from a mixture of deciduous soil, peat. The addition of crushed charcoal gives a good effect.
- Top dressing. They are fed during the growing season. The intervals between fertilization are 15-20 days. Organic and mineral preparations alternate. In winter, it does not need additional feeding.
- Aglaonema transplant. Young plants are replanted every spring. Cut off old shoots, leave 1-2 cm of the stem. The sections are treated with coal powder. Adult plants do not need to be transplanted for 3-5 years. Low wide pots are used, drainage from brick chips or expanded clay is poured at the bottom.
They use different methods – dividing the bush, grafting, growing from seeds. Reproduction of aglaonema by any of these methods does not cause problems.
- By dividing the bush. As it grows, new shoots appear. Simultaneously with the transplant, they are planted in separate pots. Choose healthy shoots with good roots. For the period of adaptation, pots with young plants are covered with a jar. Periodically ventilate the greenhouse, monitor soil moisture, spray seedlings.
- By cuttings. The top or side shoots are cut off as cuttings, parts of the trunk are used. Sections with several leaves take root well. Sections are dried and sprinkled with charcoal powder. Cuttings are placed in wet sand, they create a greenhouse environment. The seedlings are periodically ventilated, the soil moisture is monitored.
- Seeds. The germination rate of fresh seeds is good and decreases over time. The seeds are briefly soaked and sown in containers with moist light soil. Keep in a bright, warm room. To improve germination, create greenhouse conditions. As real leaves appear, the seedlings dive into separate cups. Grown plants are planted in pots.
Advice! If you want to harvest seeds from your plant, make sure the berries separate easily. The color of ripe berries is bright red. Seeds are removed from ripe fruits, washed and dried.
When growing aglaonema, flower growers have to face a number of problems. Usually they are associated with inaccuracies in care.
- Rolling leaves. The room temperature is too low.
- Shriveled leaves, brown tips. Lack of moisture in the air. Air humidifiers are installed, plants are often sprayed.
- Light yellow spots. Sign of sunburn. The plant needs to be shaded or rearranged to another window.
- Dark spots on the leaves. A possible reason is waterlogging of the soil. Watering is reduced, waiting for the drying of the earthy coma.
- The leaves turn black. A sign of plant hypothermia. Rearranged to a warmer place.
The most common pests are thrips, mealybugs and aphids. Sometimes affected by whitefly. If insects are found, they are treated with insecticides.
Types of aglaonema with photos and names
Aglaonema brilliant (Aglaonema nitidum)
The native land of the species is damp forests on the plains of Sumatra, Thailand, Kalimantan and Malaysia. The trunk reaches 1 m in height. Dark and bright green leaves grow up to 45 cm long, up to 20 cm wide, have an oblong shape; the top side of the sheet is glossy. Flowers are collected in inflorescences of two to five pieces. A six-centimeter ear is covered with a veil of almost the same length. The fruits grow white.
Aglaonema changeable (Aglaonema commutatum)
Another name is aglaonema volatile. The native land of the species is Sulawesi and the Philippines. Stem – straight, 20-150 cm long. Leaves grow on long petioles; leaf length – up to 30 cm, and width – up to 10 cm. Flowers are collected in inflorescences of three to six flowers. A thin 6-centimeter ear is covered with a longer pale green veil. The red berries are fruit and add to the decorative value of this aglaonema species. In the variety warburgii along the lateral veins on the leaf has white stripes. The elegans variety is distinguished by elongated oval leaves of a light green color with a pattern of pale green on them. The maculatum variety has elongated oval leaves and dark green color with white strokes on the leaf plate.
Aglaonema oblong-leaved (Aglaonema marantifolium)
The homeland of the species is the rainforests of the tropical regions of the Penang and Borneo islands, as well as the Philippines and Singapore. Large dark green leaves grow up to 30 cm and are attached to twenty centimeter petioles. The leaves of some varieties of Aglaonema oblong-leaved are covered with a silvery-gray pattern.
Painted Aglaonema (Aglaonema pictum)
Aglaonema lives in humid forests on about. Borneo and about. Sumatra. The trunk branches out and grows up to 60 cm in height. The leaves are large, dark green in color and elongated elliptical in shape, unevenly covered with gray spots. Some varieties of this species have white-silver spots. The fruits grow red.
Aglaonema ribbed (Aglaonema costatum)
It lives in the humid forests of the tropical part of Southwest Malaysia. Herbaceous plants. The trunk branches out at the base. The leaves grow up to 20 cm in length and up to 10 cm in width. The leaves are dense, green in color with white strokes and spots.
Aglaonema modestum, or moderate aglaonema
Another name is moderate aglaonema. The homeland of this species is humid forests on the mountain slopes of the tropical part of the Malay Archipelago and Indochina. Aglaonema grows up to half a meter in height, the trunk branches. Leaves up to 20 cm long and up to 9 cm wide; have an oval shape, sharp top, blunt base, green color; there are several convex lateral veins on each side of the midvein. The fruit is similar to the red dogwood fruit.
Other varieties for Aglaonema:
- Aglaonema is humble. Differs in compactness. Height does not exceed 25 cm. Leaves are pointed. It grows slowly compared to other varieties. The maximum annual growth is 5-6 leaves.
- Aglaonema Silver Queen. The most popular and undemanding variety to care for. The leaves are small, oblong. The upper side of the leaves is silvery with green blotches. The bottom is plain light green.
- Aglaonema Crete. Low – up to 30 cm. Valued for beautiful leaves with red streaks.
- Aglaonema is changeable. Height up to 70 cm, straight trunk. The leaves are large, oval, shiny, green. The peculiarity of the variety is that it does not tolerate direct rays of the sun.
- Aglaonema Maria Christina. The leaves are large, curved outward. Color – silvery gray. Tall variety – grows up to 70 cm. Unpretentious, easily tolerates shading, minimal maintenance requirements.
Advice! Not all types of aglaonema form lush bushes on their own. Usually several seedlings or shoots are planted in one pot at once. Adult plants are formed by replanting apical rooted cuttings. Choose wide pots – the root system of several plants at once requires free space.