The plant Cyperus or full is a representative of the Sedge family. This genus includes about 600 different species. Habitat – wetlands and zones along bodies of water of a temperate or tropical climate.
The popularity of cyperus in home floriculture is due to its decorative appearance, as well as its ability to cleanse the air from dust. If you provide the cyperus with suitable conditions, this plant does not require careful maintenance and practically does not get sick.
Description of Cyperus
Tsiperus is a herbaceous perennial plant. Close knots are located on the tops of its shoots. Leaf blades are formed on them, shaped like an umbrella. Depending on the variety, the foliage can be colored in different shades of green, as well as be two-tone. Cyperus forms brownish spikelets in the leaf axils all year round.
The plant is very hygrophilous. Of its many species, only a few are suitable for indoor cultivation. Cyperus can grow in the shade and is often used to decorate aquariums, artificial reservoirs, or places that are too dark for most plants.
Brief rules for growing cyperus
The table shows brief rules for caring for cyperus at home.
|Lighting level||Both shading and scattered beams are acceptable.|
|Content temperature||Up to +22 degrees in the warm season, at least +12 degrees in the winter.|
|Watering mode||Very abundant during the period of active growth, the soil must remain moist at all times. Bottom watering is most often used. In winter, the soil is moistened less often.|
|Air humidity||Constant spraying is required.|
|The soil||A mixture of humus with peat and an admixture of 1/6 of the bog silt is required. Upon completion of the transplant, the top of the soil is covered with a layer of sand. Sometimes cyperus is grown hydroponically.|
|Top dressing||Once every 3 weeks in spring and summer, using mineral formulations.|
|Transfer||If necessary, you can transplant the flower at any time.|
|Pruning||Old yellowing and later dying stems are subject to pruning.|
|Bloom||Nondescript, the plant is prized for its foliage.|
|Dormant period||The dormant period is weak, the flower grows all year round.|
|Reproduction||Seeds, rosettes, cuttings, dividing the bush.|
|Pests||Mealybug, whiteflies, thrips, and spider mites.|
|Diseases||Drying of the tips of the foliage due to excessive dryness of the air.|
Cyperus home care
Cyperus is considered a shade-tolerant plant, but still prefers bright light. It is able to tolerate even direct sun, although it is the diffused light that is considered optimal for growing. Wide window sills of the western or eastern direction are considered a good place. If cyperus grows on the south window, during hot hours the bushes can be shaded a little so that burns do not appear on the foliage.
Cyperus can also be grown under artificial lighting, trying to keep the daylight hours at least 15 hours. Excessive shading will lead to the fact that the bush will develop at a slower pace. In winter, the plant needs a little more light than usual. You can move it to a brighter place or use additional lighting.
Cyperus prefers moderate warmth; in spring and summer, it grows best at temperatures around 20-22 degrees. Another important requirement is fresh air. In warm weather, you can take the container with the plant outside or into the garden by dropping the pot into the ground. If the flower remains at home, the room with the cyperus must be ventilated. In winter, the temperature in it should not be lower than 12 degrees. Cold drafts can damage the plant.
Tsiperus is a marsh plant that is not afraid of excessive soil moisture. The roots must be kept in moist soil at all times. In order for the flower to receive a sufficient amount of moisture, a container with it is often placed in a pots, about half filled with well-settled soft water. Cyperus should spend the winter in a cooler place. During this period, the volume of irrigation is reduced, but the soil in the container should not be overdried.
Cyperus needs constant and fairly abundant spraying. For this, cold settled water is used. In winter, the air next to the plant is humidified less often, but they try to keep the pot away from batteries or heaters. Lack of air humidity leads to drying and blackening of the leaves.
A slightly acidic soil with a pH of about 5-6 is suitable for planting cyperus. It should include humus and peat soil. To make the substrate even more suitable, it is recommended to add 1/6 of the bog silt to it. You can also mix humus with peat, turf and sand.
Fertilizers are required for cyperus only during the period of the most active growth – in spring and summer. Any complex mineral compositions are suitable for this. Old yellowed leaf blades can be removed to stimulate shoot growth. In winter, feeding is not carried out.
Tsiperus is transplanted only if necessary, it can be done all year round, but spring is considered the best time. A plant growing for a long time in one container may begin to thin out. The cyperus transplant procedure also allows you to refresh the soil or divide a large bush.
A high and moderately wide container is suitable for placing a cyperus. The plant grows exactly in breadth, but too much volume will force the plant to grow roots. At least a quarter of the pot is filled with drainage. But there is also the opposite opinion: since the plant lives in swamps, it may not need a drainage layer at all. If the container with the plant is planned to be placed in water, the surface of the soil is additionally covered with sand. Another way to grow cyperus is hydroponics or pure hydrogel.
Tilt the pot slightly and carefully pull the plant out of the pot, trying to keep the soil ball. If the roots were injured, these areas are removed, having previously cleared of the old soil.
Variegated Cyperus varieties can form common green shoots. They must be cut, otherwise the whole plant will soon turn a simple green color. Old yellowing and later dying stems are also subject to pruning. Removing them contributes to the renewal of the bush.
Pests and diseases
Thrips and whiteflies can settle on cyperus, in addition, sometimes mealybugs affect it, and in dry heat and heat – spider mites. You can get rid of pests using soapy water or an insecticide.
Cyperus foliage can begin to dry out at the edges due to too dry air. If the leaf blades began to lose their color and turn yellow, this indicates a lack of minerals in the soil. Such a plant must be fed.
Cyperus breeding methods
The main breeding method for Cyperus is leaf rosettes, but there are other options for obtaining a new plant. This is using seeds and cuttings or dividing a large bush.
Growing from seeds
Cyperus seeds are sown in containers filled with leafy soil and peat with half of the sand added. After sowing, they are covered with glass or foil. For their germination, the room must keep at least +18 degrees. The soil is periodically moistened with settled warm water. After the sprouts appear, they dive, planting 3 pieces per 7 cm pot. The soil for replanting should consist of turf and leafy soil mixed with sand.
Young seedlings are sheltered from direct rays and moisturized abundantly. After a couple of months, they are moved into larger pots, 2 cm larger than the old ones. Three seedlings are again placed in each container at once, and a mixture of peat and sand with a double part of turf is taken as soil.
Reproduction using sockets
To propagate cyperus, you can take her leaf rosette. It should have a small part of the stem. For rooting, use a container with sand. For root formation, the soil temperature should be about +22 degrees. If the room is cold, it is advisable to use bottom heating, but the ground temperature should not rise above +24 degrees.
If possible, the outlet is not cut off, but used to form a layering. The stem is bent so that the outlet is immersed in a container of water. After some period, roots will begin to form on it, after which the new plant is separated from the mother plant and planted in its own container.
Spring is best for cutting cuttings. The top of the stem is cut under the lower knot. At the same time, the leaves on it are shortened, leaving only 1/3 of the length. These cuttings are planted in small 7 cm pots for rooting. The cutting itself dries up later, but fresh shoots begin to form next to it. One month after rooting, you can move such a seedling into a regular pot.
For rooting, you can also put the cuttings in the water, dropping them down there with foliage.
Dividing the bush
Cyperus bushes older than 2 years grow, after which they can be divided into parts. Such divisions are quickly taken in a new place and turn into full-fledged bushes.
Useful properties of cyperus
One of the plant species – papyrus – has a number of medicinal properties. It improves cerebral circulation, is able to have a good effect on vision, and also helps with insomnia and migraines. There are several signs associated with this type of plant. It is assumed that papyrus should not be kept in the house of aggressive or insecure people. According to the teachings of feng shui, cyperus helps to create a more uplifting atmosphere and distract from everyday worries, as well as get rid of unpleasant meetings.
In ancient times, baskets and mats were made from cyperus, boats were built and even shoes were made. In addition, the plant was eaten.
Types and varieties of cyperus with photos and names
Cyperus umbrella (Cyperus alternifolius)
It lives along the swampy riverbanks of the island of Madagascar. Usually, it reaches 1.5 m in height. Stems are straight, often rounded, with an umbrella of leaves at the top. The foliage is narrow, linear, about 24 cm long. Inflorescences that form in the axils of the leaf plates look like small panicles.
Such a cyperus is sometimes called the alternate-leaved. It is considered the most common in the culture. The species has a variegated form variegata, characterized by a white stripe in the middle of each leaf.
It was from this plant that the Egyptians obtained the famous papyrus. Another name is paper cane. It mainly lives in the African tropics, while today in Egypt, which glorified him, it is considered a rather rare plant. It is assumed that the Egyptians themselves in ancient times cultivated such cyperus artificially after the plant came to them from more tropical regions of the mainland.
The average height of a papyrus reaches 3 meters. As it approaches the top, its stems take on the shape of a trihedron. The rosette-forming leaves are long and slightly drooping. Inflorescences on a thin pedicel develop from the sinuses on them. They contain about a hundred small flowers. To grow such a cyperus at home, you will need warmth and high humidity. Most often it can be seen in greenhouses.
Cyperus spreading (Cyperus diffusus)
Another tropical species. Has a small number of stems. They reach a height of 90 cm. Numerous foliage also grows at the base of the stems, its width reaches 1.5 cm. At the tops there are thinner leaf blades in an amount of 6 to 12 pieces.