Famous members of the Palma family are date palms. The date palm (Phoenix) is represented by trees or grounded shrubs. This genus contains 17 species. These palms grow mainly in Africa and Eurasia. In nature, such palms grow up to 15 meters in length. The leaves of the date palm are pinnately divided, as a rule, the palm has one trunk, but there are also many stem plants.
The fruits of the date palm (dates) are very useful and popular. As a rule, they are sold in dried form, dried dates have a pleasant taste, they are high in calories, include a set of nutrients. Also, dates in dried form are stored for a long time, even in hot and dry climates. Date palm at home in recent years is not uncommon. Date palm decorates, as a rule, large, spacious rooms: living rooms, offices, lobby.
Of the 17 species of date palms, only three species are suitable for growing at home: the Canary date, the finger date and the Robelen date.
These species differ from each other, in particular, the finger date is a classic palm tree, 2 to 3 meters long. Canary date has larger foliage, but a shorter length, no more than 2 meters. The Robelen date is distinguished by the fact that it has several trunks, while these trunks are often curved, up to three meters in length this type of palm grows. It should be noted that palm trees at home do not give fruit, dates can be plucked only from large trees, from 10 meters high.
Care for date palm
The optimal summer temperature is in the region of 16-20 degrees Celsius. In winter, the temperature drops, it should be 10-16 degrees, 10-13 degrees for palms of the Type of Date Robelen. At the same time, domestic palms can withstand a short-term drop in temperature to -5 degrees Celsius, only adult palms can withstand such differences.
Date palms love bright, diffused lighting, direct rays are permissible in spring, in summer the plant is better shaded, the leaves of the date palm easily get burned. Every two weeks, the palm should be rotated half a turn around its axis, this ensures symmetrical growth of the foliage. The lack of lighting is indicated by the faded color of the leaves, the overabundance of lighting is indicated by yellow and brown spots on the leaves.
In the spring-summer period, the plant needs abundant and frequent watering. The earthen lump should not dry out, only light drying of the topsoil is allowed. In winter, the soil should dry out slightly between watering, but not dry out at all. It is very important to maintain proper watering of the plant, preventing drying out and overflow. For watering palm trees, only settled water at room temperature should be used. If the tips of the plant begin to turn black, most likely the soil is overwatered.
The plant needs high humidity, especially in the summer. In summer, palm trees should be sprayed regularly. Leaves should be periodically wiped with a damp cloth from dust. In winter, the plant should also be sprayed, but less often than in summer.
Once every two weeks, the plant needs fertilizing. For this, mineral or organic fertilizers are perfect. It is worth applying fertilizer 1 time in two weeks. At other times, the plant is not fed.
Soil and replanting
For the cultivation of an adult date palm, a substrate consisting of turf and leafy earth, as well as humus, perlite or sand, mixed in equal parts, is suitable. Date palm is a perennial plant, it is worth transplanting it only at an early age, as it grows. Adult palm trees react poorly to classical transplantation, it is desirable for them to partially change the soil every 3-4 years.
The date palm is easily propagated from the seed. Out of the date comes a bone. The bone is placed in water for 2-3 days, the water is periodically changed, so the bone swells.
After that, a special substrate consisting of peat and sand is made, the stone is planted in the substrate. It is necessary to maintain light soil moisture, the temperature should be in the region of 25-30 degrees Celsius.
If all conditions are met, seedlings appear in about a month and a half. The plant does not germinate much, after it is transplanted into the open ground, after the palm trees grow by 10 centimeters, it is transplanted into a pot. Growing a date palm is not a matter of one year, because its leaves appear only for 5 years of life.