Dhaincha – is generally used as a green manure crop. It can be grown in all seasons having sufficient moisture in the soil. It not only improves physical properties but also helps in meeting the nitrogen requirement of the succeeding crop.
Farmers are using chemical fertilizers on a large scale for better production. Due to this, the fertility of the soil is getting affected continuously. Fertilizer is used heavily in maize crop especially in Rabi crops. Due to the use of chemical fertilizers, 16 nutrients required by the soil are not supplied.
Whereas Dhaincha is sufficient to supply 16 nutrients. The use of green manure not only gives good yield. Rather, the cost of chemical fertilizers can also be reduced. When is the cultivation of dhaincha 15 to 20 kg of seed is required in one hectare for the cultivation of dhaincha starting after 15th April. Generally, dhaincha is planted about two months before the planting of paddy.
Farming of Dhicha is very useful. On average, 25 to 30 tonnes of green manure is prepared by plowing and reversing the crop of Dhicha in one acre after about 55 days in the fields. Due to which 80 to 120 kg of Netogen, 12 to 15 kg of Phosphorous, 8 to 10 kg of Potash are supplied. This reduces the average use of chemical fertilizers. Due to this, the cost of chemical fertilizers per acre of paddy crop is reduced by two thousand on an average. Whereas it also proves to be a boon for the barren and fertile land.
Due to light rain in the month of May and June, It does not require mulching or special care and is suitable for vacant land. Dhaincha has the ability to deal with drought along with nutrients. Dhaincha not only supplies nutrients. Rather, due to maintaining the moisture content in the fields, the cost of Patwan is also reduced. The structure produces organic acids. Which also makes saline and alkaline land fertile.
Dhaincha can be grown absolutely on all types of soil. It gives the best results when growing in sandy loam to loamy soils. The developed roots of dhaincha increase the circulation of air in the soil. Microorganisms present in the soil use it as a food item. Due to increased decomposition in the soil, along with the increase in biological properties, the crops get nutrients easily. This increases production. Due to the increase in the amount of humus in the soil, the water holding capacity develops.
POPULAR VARIETIES WITH THEIR YIELD
- Punjab Dhaincha 1: Bold seeded variety having quick growth. It has comparatively more nodules. The grain yield is about 3-4 quintals per acre. Ripens for about 150 days.
- CSD 137: It is tolerant to sodic, saline, and water-logged sodic soils. Ready to harvest in 140 days. Under salt-affected soil, gives an average yield of 133 QTL/acre.
- CSD 123: It gives a high level of tolerance to sodic, saline, and water-logged sodic soils. Ready to harvest in 120 days. Under salt-affected soil conditions gives an average yield of 112 QTL/acre.
Plowed land thoroughly before monsoon to bring soil to a fine tilth. After plowing, make soil weed and stubble-free. Then leveled soil properly. Add 3-4 tons/acre of well-decomposed cow dung at the time of field preparation.
Time of sowing
The optimum time for sowing for green manure purposes is from April – July whereas for seed purposes optimum time for sowing is from Mid-June to Mid-July.
For manuring purposes, use row spacing of 20-22.5cm, and for seed purposes use a spacing of 45×20 cm.
Sowing depth should be 3-4 cm.
Method of sowing
For sowing use the seed drill method.
For green manure crop sow 20 kg seed/acre. Use in the range of 8 to 10 kg of seeds per acre to produce this grain.
Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)
|UREA||SSP||MURIATE OF POTASH|
Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)
Apply P@12kg/acre in form of Superphosphate@75kg/acre at the time of sowing. If phosphorus dose is already given in the previous crop then avoid phosphorus application.
When it is grown for grain purposes, give one hoeing one month after sowing.
If the crop is grown for green manure purpose, in the summer period, three to four irrigation are required. When it is grown for grain purposes, avoid water stress at flower initiations and grain development stage.
- Pest and their control:
Tobacco caterpillar: Larva feeds on the leaves and damages the crop. If infestation is observed, then spray crop with Novaluron 10 EC@150 ml/ 80-100 Ltrs of water per acre.
The appointment of green manure in the soil at a harvest age of 40-60 days. For cereals, a ripe crop is ready for harvest from about mid-October to early November.
- Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana
- Department of Agriculture
- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
- Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare