The actions of machines on a large construction site seem to be coherent and very fast. Just yesterday, a huge bucket gnawed into the ground, and today there is already the first level of the future building. This is on large-scale construction sites. But even if you need to put a country house, the principles are the same: first you need the preparation of the soil, its compaction. Buying expensive mechanisms for long-term use is impractical. DIY vibrating plate compactor is a real and affordable solution.
Scope and technical characteristics of vibratory plate compactor
The vibrating plate is an aggregate whose main function is tamper. It is used in various fields: for compaction of soil during construction, landscape planning, for compaction of bulk materials (sand, pebbles, gravel), for laying asphalt, paving slabs, paving stones.
The machine is small in size, therefore maneuverable. It can be used both in an open area (when tamping a land plot, parking, paving, flooring in large industrial premises, etc.), and in a limited space (in ditches, trenches, near buildings, near curbs, wells, manholes etc.).
A vibrating plate for compaction of soil and other bulk materials is recommended for use on areas not exceeding 1000 m². For large areas, large-sized and more powerful equipment is used for these purposes.
Each model of the vibrating plate has its own operational indicators, which determine the features of its use and scope. So, when choosing a vibrating plate, you should pay attention to the following specifications:
- dimensions of the base plate, mm;
- vibration frequency, Hz;
- the depth of the seal, mm;
- vibration amplitude, mm;
- power, kWt;
- mass of the unit, kg;
- electricity or fuel consumption, kW / h or l / h;
- maximum productivity, sq.m / h;
- overall dimensions of the device, mm.
Types of vibrating plates compactor: the main differences, advantages and disadvantages
Vibrating plates are divided according to several indicators. The first of these is the type of engine. Depending on which engine is installed on the unit, there are plates:
The electric vibrating plate 220 V is the cheapest and most affordable option. According to technical criteria, it is slightly inferior to the other two types, as it has a small weight and a low degree of compaction. Most of all, this model is suitable for use on a private plot, in agriculture, in landscape work. Its disadvantage is the obligatory availability of a power source and limitation of the radius of action by the length of the cord.
In the absence of a source of electricity or the inability to connect to the mains, it is worth buying a gasoline vibrating plate. It is more expensive than electric, but has no restrictions on operating conditions. It is easy to transport and move. Diesel is cheaper than gasoline, but the engine itself is more expensive. Diesel units are the most powerful, they are more often used on construction sites. The disadvantage of a diesel vibrating plate is a significant noise level during operation and high cost.
Helpful advice! Engine power directly affects the movement of the plate. At high rates, the unit moves itself. If the power is low, then the stove may burrow. This disadvantage is exacerbated if a layer of fine-grained material is rammed.
The vibrating plates are also divided according to their purpose: for tamping asphalt and compaction of the soil. The former are distinguished by the presence in their design of a device for supplying water irrigation. It is necessary for wetting, a damp surface eliminates sticking to the base. The surface of such a vibrating plate is smooth, the edges are rounded.
The unit for tamping soil is heavier, the surface texture of the plate is embossed.
There are machines with translational motion and reverse. Translational move in one direction and have one unbalance. The second type of vibrating plates reciprocating direction of movement. They have two unbalances, so they can move in different directions. Vibratory plates are controlled manually or remotely. The latter option is convenient and safe, but its price is much higher.
Weight classification of rammers
Along with power, mass is an important technical indicator. It is on it that you need to pay attention when choosing a device model or when creating a tamper with your own hands. According to this parameter, the vibrating plates are divided into four types:
|Type of vibrating plate compactor||Weight||Features and scope|
Up to 100 kg
Low degree of compaction, used in agriculture, landscape planning
High-frequency with a small amplitude, used for thin layers of fine-grained soil and asphalt pavement
Are applied to thick coarse-grained soil layers.
More than 500 kg
They have a high amplitude of vibration; they are used when a high degree of tamping is required.
Helpful advice! When choosing a vibrating plate, it should be borne in mind that a heavy device is less maneuverable but more efficient. If the mass does not correspond to the thickness of the soil and turns out to be less than recommended, it will take a lot of time for compaction and additional fuel or electricity will be consumed.
The device of the vibrating plate compactor: the main nodes and methods of connection
To buy a vibrating plate, it is recommended to choose a price by looking at the characteristics of units and prices of any trading organization. But it is possible to use it correctly and even more so to make a car with your own hands only if you know its structure.
The design of the vibrating plate consists of the following main components:
- centrifugal clutch;
- motor frame;
- control knobs;
- protective covers.
A vibrator is installed on a heavy platform, the basis of which is an unbalanced shaft placed in bearing bearings and a cylindrical housing. The design is fixed with clamps, bolted to the plate. An important detail in the device of the vibrating plate, which also connects to the platform, is the motor frame. It is attached using shock absorbers.
An engine is located above the vibration exciter. The motor and vibrator are connected by a clutch and a V-belt drive. In the process, the engine creates rotational movements that are transmitted to the vibrator, which converts them into oscillatory ones. These movements are communicated to the slab, and then to the surface layer, which is compacted.
If the function of the vibrating plate is tamping of paving slabs or paving stones, then the model should be equipped with a softening nozzle made of plastic or a special supporting surface made of polyurethane.
Principle of operation
Working mechanisms have an impact on the surface of the plate, which produces a certain number of movements in contact with the ground – this is the basis of the principle of operation of this device. Kinetic energy on impact is converted to other forms of energy. The pressure on the surface instantly increases, and then the same instantaneous decline occurs. Therefore, in addition to impact force, speed and frequency are effective. As a result of this action, small particles fill the voids, resulting in a very dense even coating.
For the manufacture of plates, two types of material are used: cast iron and steel.
Helpful advice! When choosing a unit with a cast-iron stove, be sure to pay attention to the brand of metal. Low-quality cast-iron plate may become cracked during prolonged use on gravel.
The size of the slab is also important during operation: the smaller its area, the better its tamping qualities. Vibration indicators determine how well the surface will compact. If the plates have the same mass, but different vibrational forces, then a unit with higher rates will be better compacted.
How to make a vibrating plate compactor DIY: the necessary parts and assembly sequence
Of course, you can buy an electric vibrating plate compactor 220 V, or you can make a mechanism that is in no way inferior to yourself. The advantages of this option are enough:
- significant cost savings (at least 50%);
- confidence in build quality;
- creating a mechanism with the desired characteristics;
- moral satisfaction.
The 220 V electric vibrating plate compactor does not require drawings, as the structure is not complex and it is not practical to spend time on paper calculations. As an engine, as an option, you can use the platform vibrator for the IV-98E vibrating plate, powered by a 220 V network. If you choose a gasoline version, a three-stroke engine with one cylinder, preferably a Honda model, is suitable.
The basis for the site can serve as sheet metal with a thickness of 8 mm and a size of 45×80 mm. You will also need 2 channels, 2 elastic pads for securing the handle, M10 bolts for an electric motor or M12 for a gasoline, 2 plastic wheels, a pipe segment, a hollow pipe 1.2 m long.
DIY assembly sequence of a vibrating plate with an electric motor:
- the cover is removed from the electric motor so that it is possible to adjust the force of vibration;
- two cuts are made on a sheet of metal at a distance of 10 cm from the edge, 5 cm deep. The edges of the cuts are bent with a hammer. This is necessary so that the plate does not burrow into the ground;
- with the help of channels, a vibrator is attached to the plate. The edges should not protrude beyond the work surface. Way of fastening – welding;
- M10 bolts connect a vibrator to the metal. The holes on the channels are drilled at the same distance as the mounting holes of the motor;
- a handle is made from the pipe and attached to the base through the pillows. Pillows dampen vibration;
- then a piece of pipe is welded, wheels are attached to it – for transportation.
Helpful advice! A homemade vibrating plate should be tested on a small area of a soft loose surface, giving a minimum load. This will reduce to zero the risk of injury in case of violations in the mechanism.
A self-assembled electric vibrating plate is a reliable mechanism that will not be inferior to the factory ones in terms of life. An insignificant disadvantage can be considered only the low aesthetics of a home-made device. Although, if desired, this disadvantage is also easy to eliminate by painting the details in bright colors.
DIY vibrating plate compactor: operating tips
Self-made vibratory rammer will become a subject of self-respect and will ensure uninterrupted operation if you adhere to certain operating rules:
- Before turning on the unit, check the strength of the fasteners and the presence of damage, the identified deficiencies should be eliminated before use
- after switching on, allow the engine to warm up for 2-3 minutes;
- use the plate only on loose surfaces;
- timely replace air filters and oil in gasoline models (every 100 hours of operation);
- prevent engine overheating;
- keep the device clean and carry out preventive maintenance;
- if a polyurethane mat is used, it must be cleaned after each use.
Helpful advice! If it is necessary to seal several layers, each layer should be rammed separately. This will ensure quality and extend the durability of the mechanism.
To reduce vibration during operation, you need to make a loop of thick rope on the handle and hold on to them. In this case, the effect on the hands and upper limbs is significantly reduced. If you need to water the surface, you should attach a tank of water and a hose from which water will be supplied and irrigate the necessary areas in sequence. Care must be taken to prevent moisture from entering the engine.
If after one passage the surface has not compacted enough, it is recommended to repeat the action until the desired result is achieved. Most often, you need to do a ramming of one section by passing 5-6 times.
The appearance of vibrating plates accelerated the process of compaction of surfaces hundreds of times. A variety of modifications allows you to choose the necessary mechanism for high-quality and comfortable work. The ability to make a homemade vibrating plate made available the use of the unit by people with various material capabilities.
Manufacturers Recommended Models
For small-scale work, it is recommended to buy an electric vibrating plate. It is not heavy, it has a folding handle, which allows you to move and transport it to the desired object. The unit has an adjustable frequency converter that allows you to change the frequency of vibration, limit inrush currents, save energy, set the optimal operating mode for these conditions. You can buy an electric vibrating plate, the price of which is several times less than the types with fuel engines, from any manufacturer where similar products are presented.
The most popular, and therefore, widely represented, vibrating plates with gasoline engines. The units of the Swiss company Ammann, whose plants have long been operating throughout Europe and have already gone beyond its borders, are very popular. The range of units includes almost all types (from ultralight to the heaviest) of diesel vibratory rammers.
Ammann vibrating plates are distinguished by a high level of comfortable conditions necessary for the operator. The guide handle is as isolated from the engine as possible to reduce vibration. An additional vibration damping guide is also patented, which can be used as an additional option. Engines are economical. There are models that run on both gasoline and diesel.
Among domestic manufacturers, competitive products on the market are supplied by the Russian group of industrial companies, Splinstone. Vibration units have good technical characteristics and low price. It is especially worth highlighting the Splitstone VS-244 vibrating plate. This is the most popular vibrating plate with a balanced combination of performance, productivity and cost. With a weight of 74 kg, it rams a layer of 100 mm. The VS-244 vibrating plate provides compaction of bulk materials, a variety of soils and asphalt in small areas, in confined spaces.
Champion PC9045F vibrating plate – products of the American development and high-quality Chinese assembly. This model can be used both for personal purposes and on construction sites. Powerful, sealing depth 300 mm. Noise level permissible. Air cooling, no bulky water tank. The disadvantage of the unit can be considered the lack of reverse.
Wacker Neuson gasoline vibrating plates are German-made products. The company of the same name (Wacker Neuson) has been operating in Germany since 2007 and specializes in lightweight construction equipment. Products are of high quality and a considerable price. The Wacker Neuson MP15 vibrating plate in the lineup represents the best option for matching the affordable price and good technical characteristics. Small dimensions allow the use of a vibration seal even in narrowly limited places. The device has a water-irrigated system, which allows the use of hot mixtures. Foldable rail and convenient lifting handles provide easy transportation. Wear-resistant bearings extend their life. The unit is direct-flow, this somewhat limits its capabilities.
Vibrating plates with Honda engines are in special demand in the construction machinery market. These mechanisms are small in size, economical, and have a long service life. Honda gasoline vibrating plates have different characteristics. They are present in significant quantities both in light models and in moderate ones.
Helpful advice! In order to profitably buy a gasoline vibrating plate, prices must be viewed at least 3-5 prices. Sometimes the difference in their value is 15-20%.
Which is better: renting a vibrating plate compactor or buying a used one?
If the funds are limited or it is impractical to buy a unit for one-time work on a small area, you can rent a vibrating plate. The main advantages of this operating option are a significant reduction in financial costs and the absence of the need for preventive maintenance. The process of renting a gasoline vibrating plate (as well as electric or diesel) should include a number of mandatory points:
- drawing up acts of acceptance of the unit;
- briefing on safe use.
The rental price of the vibrating plate ranges from 10 to 72$. per day. It depends most of all on the weight of the machine and the timing of use. Heavy units are more expensive. Long-term rental offers discounts. When renting a gasoline vibrating plate, fuel is not included in the payment. The unit is refueled by the tenant.
To save money when tamping the soil and other surfaces, you can buy a used vibrating plate. But in such a situation, you need to be prepared for the fact that guarantees will be only verbal. The life of the machine cannot be determined. The degree of wear can be established only relative, according to visual assessment, it is not determined by the date of issue. There is always a risk to buy a unit that is disposed of for any technical reasons. Most often, it is not possible to return a used mechanism to the seller.
Helpful advice!When deciding to buy a used vibrating plate, be sure to check the engine. If there are problems, they will accordingly manifest themselves with unusual noise, delayed start-up or other deviations from the norm.