The foundation walls is one of the most important parts of the building. This is a kind of support, which is subjected to constant negative environmental impact. Finishing outside concrete foundation walls not only gives it an aesthetic appearance, but also protects it from adverse factors. Therefore, finishing materials must be moisture resistant, frost-resistant, reliable and durable.
Why do I need to finish the foundation walls of a private house
Most of the foundation of the building is below ground level and is hidden from view. The protruding part above the ground is called the base. According to the norms, the height of the foundation walls from the ground should be at least 20 cm. It is usually made of brick, stone or concrete slabs.
The construction of a stone foundation walls is the most practical solution, since the design does not need additional decoration. However, it is worth considering that this is the most expensive way. Brick masonry is more affordable. This material is environmentally friendly, has low thermal conductivity and good strength characteristics.
Facing the foundation walls of the house is not only aesthetic in nature. This is a reliable protection of the building from external influences. Finishing materials that will be used for covering the base must have a high level of strength. Together with the base, its lining will perceive the load that the wall structures of the building create and evenly distribute it along the foundation of the building. It must withstand pressure and protect the base from external factors, such as precipitation, sunlight, humidity, temperature fluctuations.
Finishing material protects the foundation of the structure from damage by mold, fungus and various types of insects. The lining of the foundation walls is carried out in order to warm the building. It is also necessary to protect the foundation from severe frosts, under the influence of which its strength decreases and the erosion process develops.
If you leave the surface of the base without cladding, this will contribute to its slow destruction as a result of constant exposure to dry or liquid mud containing aggressive chemical and mineral substances.
Various finishes of the foundation walls of a private house, photos clearly confirm this, turn the building into a masterpiece of design art, making its appearance complete and unique.
Varieties of foundation walls designs
Distinguish the main variations of designs that are used for projects of houses with a socle:
- protruding beyond the surface of the walls;
- flush with the building;
- sunk, relative to the wall.
Most often, when building a private house, the photo of the foundation walls of the house clearly confirms this, they use the first two options. The protruding base is recommended when the house is being built using thin external walls, a warm underground is used, or a foundation walls is provided in the building. In these cases, this type of foundation walls will provide the building with additional thermal insulation.
If the foundation walls is flush with the building when thin walls are used for its construction, the appearance of dampness and the formation of condensation in the interior are inevitable. Here, it is most problematic to install insulation and finish.
Important! Choosing these types of foundation walls, you should take care of arranging the tides in advance.
The sunken base is less damaged by the effects of precipitation. Here you can easily hide the waterproofing, equip the insulation and perform the lining with the necessary materials, which contributes to a longer service life. This type of base is recommended for buildings without a foundation walls. Finishing materials for the base will perceive ground pressure, performing the supporting function, thereby maintaining the safety of the entire structure.
The procedure for finishing the foundation walls of the house
All works on facing the foundation walls structure are carried out at the final stage of production – the exterior decoration of the building. Work is best done in warm, dry weather. The plating of the base consists of the following actions, which are performed in a certain sequence:
- Digging a trench 20 cm deep, 50 cm wide around the entire perimeter of the building.
- Filling the space with gravel to ensure drainage. Additionally, the trench can be strengthened using a reinforcing mesh.
- The surface of the wall, 50-70 cm high for the future foundation walls is cleaned of dirt and treated with water repellents . If necessary, all irregularities are eliminated.
- Arrangement of thermal insulation.
- Decorative facing of a socle.
The choice of facing material and how it is laid depends on the construction of the base and the way it is cast.
Arrangement of ebbs for the foundation walls base
To protect the base from the negative effects of precipitation, an ebb should be installed, which is fixed above the protruding part of the base, and is a kind of delimiter between the base of the building and the wall structure. One part is in contact with the wall at some angle, and the other hangs over the foundation, blocking it, collecting rain and melt water.
Low tides for the base are slats measuring 50-400 mm. Select the color, size and shape of the tides should be depending on the finishing material of the foundation. A water-repellent structure can be made independently using waterproof materials, or you can buy ebbs for the foundation walls base ready-made in any hardware store.
Today, the industry produces several varieties of low tides:
The type of ebb is selected based on the finishing material for the facade of the building. Most successfully, plastic tides are combined with vinyl siding, which is used to clad a building. Due to the wide range of colors, you can choose the most suitable option. The use of concrete or clinker castings for the base is preferable for buildings that are faced with natural stone or brick. Metal visors can be used with any type of finishing material.
Varieties of ebbs
The most budget option is the use of plastic castings made of polyvinyl chloride. The cost of the product is 0,70$. for 1 lm Despite the high rate of water resistance, low tides show increased sensitivity to physical impact, especially in the winter, when from the slightest blow they can crack and crack.
Useful advice! Due to the fact that plastic castings are highly fragile, preference should be given to more durable and expensive products.
The most durable and durable are castings made of metal: steel, copper or aluminum. Installation of products is convenient and simple, and is determined by fixing metal strips to the walls of the building using self-tapping screws and dowels. When choosing this material from a wide range of species, particular importance should be given to the aesthetic appearance of the product, so that it creates the completeness of the overall design of the building. The price of the product starts from 1,40$ / lm.
Useful advice! When mounting base ebbs, the slats should be overlapped by at least 30 mm. To avoid damage to the protective layer of the product, which will lead to the formation of corrosion and destruction of the material, do not cut the trims.
Metal castings are made of high-quality and frost-resistant cement grade M450 with the addition of river sand, crushed granite and plasticizers. The solution is poured into silicone molds of various geometric parameters. The result is an even and smooth product. These ebbs are attached to a special solution.
Low tides for the foundation walls base, the price of which is the highest and starts at 2,81$. for 1 pm, – these are products made of clinker tiles. This material has high strength characteristics, reliably protects the building from the negative effects of the environment and successfully emphasizes the design of the cladding.
Ebb mounting technology
After selecting the ebb, you can proceed with its installation. Here it is necessary to take into account not only the material from which the ebbs are made, but also the structural features of the building. So, for a wooden house, elements that will be fastened with screws or other fasteners are suitable. Since wood has low adhesion and is afraid of dampness, the use of adhesive compositions is impractical.
For buildings made of brick or facing stone, castings can be used, which will be fixed using polymer or cement-adhesive mortars.
Useful advice! When using concrete or ceramic tides, their installation should be carried out simultaneously with the lining of the base and walls.
If it is necessary to install ebbs on a building already finished with facing material, then it is better to use metal or vinyl elements.
Before mounting the tides, it is necessary to seal the joints of the walls with the base. All cracks and crevices should be treated with a water-repellent mixture, or sealed with sealant. Next, using the level, mark the walls. The highest point of the base is determined and a horizontal line is drawn along which the upper part of the ebb will be mounted. The part of the foundation that protrudes must be compared with a horizontal plane using a cement screed. The lower part of the ebb will be supported on it.
Important! The plane of the tide relative to the wall should be located with a slope of 10-15%.
Installation of metal and plastic tides
The installation of the tides should start from the corner, using special corner elements that can be purchased together with trims of the same width and color. Next, it is necessary to finish all the protruding parts of the building structure: columns, pilasters and others.
In the upper part of the ebb with a drill, holes are drilled at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other. Further, the element is applied to the previously outlined line on the wall of the house and dowels with screws are attached to it. The lower part of the ebb with the help of dowels-nails is attached to the concrete base of the base with a pitch of 40-50 cm. The joint of the ebb with the wall should be sealed with putty or silicone compound.
Important! During the installation of the ebb, it should be borne in mind that it should protrude 2-3 cm beyond the edge of the foundation walls, which will provide better protection of the foundation wallsduring precipitation.
After covering all corners and protruding elements, proceed with the installation of ebbs in straight sections. You need to start from one of the corners. Each next element should be overlapped with the previous one by at least 3 cm. All joints should be sealed to prevent moisture from entering.
Installation of concrete and clinker tides
Clinker and concrete castings should be mounted at the stage of facing the facade of the building, since fitting them in size during installation is a time-consuming process.
These varieties of tides are better combined with such facing materials as brick, porcelain stoneware , clinker tiles, natural or artificial stone . For their fastening, a special adhesive composition for ceramics and stone, which is intended for outdoor use, should be used. It is purchased in the form of a dry mixture, created on a cement or polymer basis, and with the help of water is brought to a state of thick sour cream. The solution can be made independently using cement and building sand in a ratio of 1: 3 or 1: 4.
Installation of concrete and clinker tides also starts from the corner. In order to avoid complicated processing of concrete castings, they should be placed in advance in such a way as to minimize their cutting. This can be achieved using a properly selected size of the seam between the elements. You can adjust the size of clinker products by using a tile cutter or a grinder with a diamond edged circle.
An adhesive mixture is applied to the back of each element. The ebb is fastened strictly along the previously outlined line. After waiting a while for the solution to set, putty or silicone sealant should be applied to the joints between the casting elements. After the adhesive has fully set, the walls of the building can be lined.
foundation walls foundation walls waterproofing
The foundation walls of the building is constantly in difficult conditions. He perceives a significant load from the aboveground part of the building and is in contact with the external environment, under the influence of moisture. To protect an important part of the house from destruction, it is necessary to provide for a number of measures, one of which is the arrangement of waterproofing the foundation walls foundation walls.
Waterproofing can be horizontal and vertical. Usually a set of work is performed that includes both methods. Horizontal waterproofing is carried out before the construction of the walls and is aimed at protecting them from moisture. However, in order to provide a complete protective package of measures, it is also necessary to carry out waterproofing between the foundation and the base.
Vertical waterproof protection is aimed at preventing the negative effects of surface and ground water on brick or concrete. Such insulation can be external and internal. Two-way moisture protection has the best effect.
Today, in the construction of buildings, pile foundations are mainly used. Here, the foundation walls plays not only a decorative role, but also protects the house from heat loss. Despite the fact that this element is not bearing and does not have a direct effect on the durability of the structure, waterproofing of the base is mandatory.
Materials for waterproofing the foundation walls outside
As materials that are used for waterproofing the foundation walls base, coating, roll and injection compositions with penetrating effect are widely used.
To protect the foundation from the effects of groundwater, roll waterproofing is often used, which can be deposited or glued. Surfacing insulation consists of a base in the form of fiberglass, polyester or fiberglass and applied mastic.
The main advantage of the roll material for waterproofing the base plate is its low cost and high installation speed. However, this type of waterproofing is poorly resistant to mechanical stress and has a short service life. It can not be used in places of passage or adjoining communications. Before installation, the surface should be cleaned of dust and dirt, and thoroughly dried.
As coating waterproofing materials, bituminous, polymer, bitumen-polymer mastics, cementitious plasters and cement coatings are used, which are applied to the surface of the foundation with a brush or roller. This type of insulation is used for water up to 2.6 kgf / cm².
Useful advice! To ensure increased durability of waterproofing after the first layer of mastic, it is recommended to reinforce the surface with fiberglass, and apply subsequent layers on top of it.
The material has a low cost and can be applied to the surface of any configuration. However, it is not durable, it requires preparatory work and the creation of additional protection against mechanical stress.
The use of injection and penetrating formulations is the latest technology for waterproofing structures. Penetrating material is applied to the wet surface of the concrete base. Reacting with water, the composition turns into crystals, which penetrate the pores of concrete, making it waterproof. The penetration depth reaches 150-250 mm.
Injection waterproofing is carried out using a liquid solution, which is injected under pressure into cracks, pores and joints of the structure. This method can be used for waterproofing buildings made of buta and brick. Using this waterproofing is a very time-consuming process that requires cleaning the structure to concrete or brick, and the complexity of the work itself requires the involvement of an experienced craftsman. Moreover, such insulation is the most expensive.
Features of waterproofing the foundation walls of brick
Ceramic brick is most often used for the construction of the foundation walls. The device of its waterproofing can be carried out by various methods.
For the construction of walls can be used solid red brick. This building material has already undergone factory processing, where a layer of waterproofing was previously applied to it. Therefore, using this brick for the construction of a building, external waterproofing can not be equipped. Despite the fact that the cost of this material is relatively high, these costs are offset by the fact that after laying brick, no other work is required.
The next method of waterproofing a brick base is to use bitumen lubricant, which is applied in several layers in cold or hot form.
Important! Using bituminous materials, it is important to strictly observe the temperature regime. When the lubricant overheats, the coating will turn out to be of poor quality with the formation of blisters, cracks and bubbles.
The traditional way of waterproofing is the use of roofing material. For a brick base, it is recommended to cover it with this material in at least 4-5 layers.
One of the new construction technologies is the use of a penetrating active two-component waterproofing composition, which fills all the cracks and pores of the foundation walls with subsequent crystallization. This is the most reliable waterproofing of the brick base with a minimum thickness of the material.
How to insulate the foundation walls outside the house with your own hands
By warming the foundation walls of the foundation from the outside, protection against moisture and cold is carried out not only in the internal space, but also in the building envelope. However, to achieve a good result, the insulation for the base must be:
- strong and elastic, in order to, taking on mechanical stresses, remain intact;
- moisture resistant;
- lightweight so as not to create additional load on the base of the building;
- resistant to chemical influences.
Important! When choosing insulation material, it should be borne in mind that its application technology should not violate the integrity of the building structure.
The main features of the arrangement of external insulation for the strip foundation:
- The insulation is laid not only on the aboveground part of the building, but also on the one that is underground about 50-80 cm deep. For this, a trench 80 cm deep and 1 m wide is laid along the perimeter of the house.
- To protect the insulation from groundwater, drainage pipes are laid at the bottom of the trench.
- A layer of liquid waterproofing is applied to the foundation walls walls using polymer compositions or bitumen mastic.
- After the waterproofing layer has completely dried, the thermal insulation material is installed.
All the above operations, with the exception of digging a trench, are also performed to warm the base of the pile-screw foundation.
Materials for insulation of the foundation walls base outside
The materials used for thermal protection of the base of the building have certain requirements: reliable protection, durability, simple and quick installation, reasonable cost.
Based on the stated requirements, one of the most economical and affordable thermal insulation options is the insulation of the base with extruded polystyrene foam. It is a durable, moisture-resistant, frost-resistant and acid-resistant material, which has a small thickness and weight, which simplifies its installation. Plates are produced with a thickness of 3-10 cm. If the maximum thickness is not enough, then the thermal insulation is mounted in two layers. However, it is worth paying attention that the material has flammability G1-G4, therefore, after its installation, it is required to cover the base with non-combustible materials.
Useful advice! For external use, plates with flame retardant impregnations (G1-G2) should be chosen.
Rarely, polyurethane foam spraying is used to insulate the cap. This is due to the fact that for the implementation of this option of thermal protection, it is necessary to use special equipment, certain chemical components and attract highly qualified workers. The essence of the method is that foamed polyurethane foam is sprayed onto any surface. Expanding, it penetrates into all voids and reliably adheres to the base, forming a dense coating. This material can be used not only for spraying, but also for pouring individual voids and areas.
DIY insulation technology for the foundation walls foundation walls
At the preparatory stage, it is necessary to prepare the foundation surface, having cleaned it of old insulation, dirt and dust. Next, a waterproofing layer should be equipped to protect the structure from rain, ground and snow water. Any kind of waterproofing is suitable for penoplex, with the exception of compounds with organic components.
Work begins with the insulation of the underground part of the foundation. To this end, PPP boards are fixed using specialized contact adhesive, which is applied around the perimeter of the product and in the center. The second level should be laid with the spacing of the joints between the plates in relation to the lower level. After installation, all slots are filled with mounting foam.
The foundation walls insulation layer with foam, requires additional protection against mechanical damage. To do this, an alkali-resistant reinforcing mesh is fixed on the plates, which is subsequently plastered with a solution with hydrophobic additives. Also, as protection, you can use wooden pliers, which are attached to the plates with dowels, nails. Wood must first be subjected to antiseptic, antipyretic and hydrophobic treatment.
The final stage is the finishing of the base with facing materials.
Facing the foundation walls of the house: which material is better to choose
Finishing the foundation walls with your own hands is carried out with various materials that reliably protect and decorate its surface. This process must be performed before facing the walls in order to be able to hide the tides under the finishing material for the walls.
The material for facing the base must have the following operational characteristics:
- have low thermal conductivity to avoid heat loss from the building;
- provide reliable and strong adhesion to the base;
- to have a high rate of strength and wear resistance to mechanical damage;
- have low hygroscopicity and vapor permeability to prevent moisture from entering the foundation and wall panels.
Today, when the question is asked how to finish the foundation walls of the house, the following materials are used that fully meet the above requirements:
- clinker or porcelain tile;
- natural or artificial stone;
- PVC panels or ground siding;
- profiled sheet;
- decorative or mosaic plaster.
For facing the foundation walls of the strip foundation, you can use any finishing material. But when the question arises, how to close the foundation walls of the house on screw piles, it is worth giving preference to brickwork, siding or professional sheet.
Before deciding how to finish the foundation walls of the house from the outside, it is necessary to take into account some nuances:
- lining the base with thick material, it is necessary to establish the ebb above its protruding part;
- wishing to expand the foundation, it is better to use brickwork;
- when mounting a siding or decking, you must first install the frame, the space of which can be filled with a heat insulator for additional insulation of the foundation;
- frame-facing technology allows you to work at any time of the year.
Use of plaster for facing plinth
When the question is: what is inexpensive to finish the base of the house, the obvious answer is to use plaster. However, this option is the least durable, in addition, it has an unaesthetic appearance. Such a cladding is easily damaged by any mechanical influences and does not provide adequate protection for the base against external factors. However, this method is widely popular due to its low cost. It is also acceptable, in the case of the construction of a brick foundation walls on a strip foundation.
Plastering itself is not the final step. To protect the layer from moisture and environmental influences, apply acrylic, alkyd, silicone paint, a water-based emulsion or oil composition, which in turn decorates the base. A photo of home decoration demonstrates the various uses of plaster.
Useful advice! Enamel paints are not recommended for staining the base. They do not let air in and are environmentally unsafe.
Often decorative plaster is used, which creates the effect of a fur coat and can be colored when using dye. The use of mosaic plaster allows you to create a multi-colored mosaic on the surface, which is due to the presence of small crumbs in the composition of the initial mixture. The presence of resin, as a binder, gives the composition increased water resistance.
The use of a special silicone stamp, with the help of which impressions are made on a plastered surface, will help to solve the question of how to make a socle around the house with the effect of a natural stone.
Use of stone for cladding
In the first place in terms of environmental friendliness and sophistication is the finishing of the base with natural stone. This is the most expensive material, however, it creates the most durable, wear-resistant, resistant to external influences and durable coating with a presentable appearance.
The stone used is granite, marble, sandstone and limestone, which is produced in the form of tiles. The material is laid on a cement mortar. The stone for the foundation walls of the house can be with a matte, polished or rough surface. Before laying, the back side of the porous material is additionally treated with a water-repellent composition to improve waterproofing properties.
The wild stone for the base has considerable weight, which increases the load on the foundation. Here it is necessary to additionally create a reinforced connection of the foundation and the drainage pillow.
Despite the fact that the lining of the socle with natural stone does not require strict adherence to the distance between the individual elements, it is a very time-consuming and lengthy process that requires additional costs for finishing many mortar joints.
An alternative to expensive natural material is the use of artificial stone for the foundation walls. This material is available in the form of concrete slabs, the surface decorative layer of which imitates natural stone. Thanks to modern technologies, a durable, reliable, frost-resistant and moisture-resistant facing stone is obtained for a foundation walls, which, compared to natural stone, has a lower weight and a more affordable price.
To finish the plinth with artificial stone, you should choose a material of more than three combining colors, which will be more like a natural stone. To obtain uniform masonry, large elements should be interspersed with small ones, rough – with smooth ones.
The complete set of materials for facing the plinth with artificial stone necessarily includes drainage troughs that protect the material from peeling from the base after freezing. Installation of products is carried out in the same way as the laying of natural stone. However, here you can do without strengthening the surface of the cap.
Brick cladding tiles for plinth
Clinker tiles for the foundation walls perform two functions at once: protective, protecting the insulation and the outer wall of the foundation from atmospheric precipitation and mechanical influences, and decorative, giving the building an aesthetic and noble appearance.
The main advantages of the material are mechanical strength, increased moisture resistance, resistance to aggressive environments, which brings the product closer to natural stone and porcelain tiles in terms of their operational characteristics. However, you can buy tiles for clinker plinths at a lower and affordable price.
This material can be used not only for the foundation walls of the house. Walls and corners of the building are tiled. Thanks to a wide range of shades, you can create a real masterpiece, which will noticeably stand out among other buildings.
Installation of tiles for the foundation walls can be carried out using a frame system where it is possible to provide for the laying of an additional layer of heat-insulating material, or to stick it on the foundation surface using frost-resistant adhesive.
The price of tiles for the foundation walls of the house depends on the country of manufacture and brand. The most popular are Germany, Poland and Spain. The average cost is 21$ / m².
Application of foundation walls siding and corrugated board
Finishing the siding base is one of the cheapest options. Due to its light weight and special mounting method, this material is easy to mount. It does not require special care, is characterized by reliability, resistance to atmospheric and mechanical influences, frost resistance, wear resistance and durability. Siding plates reliably protect the foundation from moisture penetration.
Manufacturers also produce corner elements. A wide range of design solutions allows the foundation walls to be finished with panels under stone, wood, brick, mosaic tiles. Installation of panels is carried out using a wooden or metal crate, on which facing material is fastened with self-tapping screws. This provides air exchange between the insulation and siding and prevents the accumulation of condensate. The plates are interconnected using a self-locking locking system.
Siding panels are equipped with the necessary shaped materials, such as corners, start and finish strips, which makes their installation easy and convenient.
Siding can be sheathed only vertical. For horizontal sections, material is not used. Therefore, if the base protruding above the foundation is faced, it is necessary to mount the ebb on the ledge .
In private homes, the foundation walls is widely used with a professional sheet. The material has a high moisture resistance, is resistant to temperature fluctuations, is durable, easy to process and is easily mounted on a wooden crate. However, corrugated board is not suitable as a finishing material for wooden buildings due to the fact that it is susceptible to corrosion under the influence of high humidity, which can lead to rotting of the wood.
Profiled sheets are often used for finishing the base of a pile-screw foundation, where it must be closed for reliable protection from atmospheric influences.
Features of the use of bricks for finishing the foundation walls
One of the expensive finishing materials is brick. However, possessing high strength and operational characteristics, it allows you to create strong, reliable and durable protection. This material is suitable for any kind of foundation. For masonry, slit, hollow, hyper-pressed or ceramic bricks should be used. Work begins with arranging the base for the masonry.
If the brick is used for the construction of the foundation walls itself, it does not need additional decoration. However, one should choose high-quality material in order to immediately solve two problems: utilitarian, protecting the walls of the house from external influences, and aesthetic, giving the building a decorative look. In deciding which brick for the foundation walls base is better, it is necessary to give preference to red burnt brick, resistant to aggressive environments.
In the case of finishing the base of the pile-screw foundation with masonry, it is necessary to install the base in the form of a tape of reinforced concrete or a metal profile. Brick laying occurs with dressing. A cement-sand mortar is used to connect the elements. The thickness of the seams is 10-12 mm.
Facing the foundation walls of a private house is important, so you should carefully consider the choice of material for work. It acts not only as a decorating element, but also is a reliable protection of the entire building from the effects of atmospheric and mechanical factors.