Almost any object needs electricity. And for this, it is necessary to install a special sub panel, inside which there will be a device monitoring the indicators, wires and cables, protective devices, and additional equipment. According to safety rules, such equipment must be installed on support and must be grounded. Why? The fact is that sub panel that operate without a ground loop can fail. Sometimes this happens not only due to the lack of grounding, but in the event of such a situation, the latter will help to avoid disastrous consequences. Grounding is the assurance that the living space is fully protected.
Its task is to disconnect the voltage if a leak or other emergency occurs. And also grounding helps household appliances to work without interruption.
Features of the installation sub panel.
The device itself, which allows you to perform the procedure, is divided into two types:
1. Purchased design, consisting of a module with multiple electrodes;
2. An independent module made of rolled metal parts.
Of course, it is recommended to use the first type, since it is more reliable and of better quality. Of the minuses, only the high cost can be called. And there are quite a few positive aspects. First, the kit includes everything you need for grounding. Secondly, they are manufactured taking into account safety rules and on factory equipment. Thirdly, the number of additional procedures is minimized: there is no need to carry out welding and earthworks. And finally, a purchased module allows you to go deep into long distances, and at the same time, the grounding device will have low resistance.
Attention! Work only in compliance with all safety measures. To carry out this work, it is desirable to involve a specialist with the appropriate equipment.
So, if the structure is made independently, then a galvanized material is needed. For example pipes or rods. Purchased sets have copper-plated pins. They are fastened together with couplings. Before starting work, the ground wire must be fastened to the pin. For this, a stainless steel clip and a special paste are used. Remember not to paint or lubricate the grounding conductors with anything.
Choose the right cross-section of the rental, which becomes smaller over time. Only for the parts listed below, choose the thinnest section:
1. Hire rectangular – 48 millimeters.
2. Galvanized bar – 6 millimeters.
3. Metal bar – 10 millimeters.
We connect the pins with a wire or a strip, and you can also use corners. With their help, grounding is carried out to the electrical sub panel.
Important: cross-section of the grounding contact = or> phase conductor.
To hold all the ground wires together, you need connecting busbars, which are made of bronze. You can hammer the structure into the ground using a sledgehammer (for independent modules) or using a jackhammer (for purchased ones).
Ground sub panel process.
Ground electrodes are placed at a distance of about 1 meter. Then we draw a ground loop, it can be round or triangular. We monitor the distance between the pins, it should not be less than 1.2 m. Ideally, the sides of the triangle should be 3 meters, as well as the length of the pin. Then we dig a trench, the depth of which is about 0.8 meters. The width is determined arbitrarily, but we take into account that after that it is necessary to weld the conductors in it.
Working with electrodes.
First, you need to sharpen it, and for this, you need a grinder. If the pin is made of metal parts that remain from other products, they are first cleaned. For factory electrodes, a sharp head is provided, which must be screwed on from above. And the bonding point is smeared with paste.
Deepening the pins.
It must be driven into the ground, and it has already been said above what to use for this. And to make it more comfortable, you can lean on a ladder or scaffold. If the metal is soft, direct blows cannot be applied; it is better to use wooden blocks as a partition. The electrodes are not completely clogged, about 20 centimeters remain on the surface. They will later join the circuit. After the end of the work, a sleeve or something similar is put on the pin. Repeat the procedure until the required depth is reached.
Typically, the electrodes are held together with a wide strip. If they are made of ferrous metal, then it is better to use a welded joint, as this will help to avoid corrosion and unnecessary resistance. When welding, strictly monitor the quality of the seam. From the finished circuit, we conduct grounding with a strip to the house. Then we bend and attach to the foundation. We screw a bolt onto the edge of the strip (it is better to weld it) to secure the wire from the shield. The last electrode is mounted with a fastening clamp, on which at the end we fix the wire. For this, we use a clamp sealed with tape.
Backfilling the trench.
It is advisable to use homogeneous soil that is dense in structure. Purchased kits include an inspection well (usually plastic).
The sub panel itself is mounted on a pillar or wall of a building and, most importantly, that the humidity is within normal limits. There should be no fire hazardous or explosive objects and areas nearby. To make contact through a wall, you need a pipe sleeve. Inside the sub panel, the grounding contacts are bonded to the grounding bus. They are bolted to the body. Then you need to check the resistance level and a multimeter will help with this. If the number is less than 4 ohms, then everything is in order, and if it is more, then more pins should be used. The bus connector is also connected to the ground wires, which are in yellow insulation. These are consumer contacts.
At this point, the work can be completed and the system can be used.