The roof is an essential element of any building and structure. Not only technical characteristics, but also aesthetic qualities depend on its proper arrangement. There are many forms of roof construction . The easiest way to build your own roof is a gable roof. Her device requires a minimum of materials and building skills.
How to build gable roof yourself
This type of roof structure has been known since ancient times. She is the most optimal and simple. Such a roof has two slope planes located at an angle. You can see a lot of photos of gable roofs of various designs, but they are all divided into 3 main types:
- Symmetrical. The section has the form of an isosceles rectangle. The ideal option is when the triangle is equilateral, that is, the slopes are located at angles of 45 degrees to the base.
- Asymmetric. Has ramps of various lengths. The solution is original, but leaves little attic space.
- Broken. This roof is also called the attic. The section looks like a pentagon. Slopes, as if refracted in relation to the base. This design leaves a large attic space, which makes it possible to install an attic floor.
For the construction of a gable roof of any of these types with your own hands, you need to know the details of its design and present the connection diagram of each element.
Gable roof construction
Any roof consists of 4 main elements: rafter system , crate, roof and pediments. What are all these structural elements?
These are the main supporting elements that make up the roof frame. The rafter system is layered and hanging. With a lay-on device, the structure has central racks that rely on the girder lying on the supporting partition in the center of the structure. On them lies a ridge run along the entire house. Mauerlat is laid on the external load-bearing walls of the building parallel to the ridge run. The ridge run and both Mauerlat are connected by lags, called rafter legs. For stiffness, the rafters are fastened to the central struts by struts. This can be clearly seen in the photo of the gable roof.
With the hanging type of installation of the rafter system, the central racks may be absent altogether. This is good when you need open space in the attic. This method makes the rafters when there is no internal load-bearing wall. The rafters in the lower part are interconnected by a puff of a bar. In the upper part, stiffness is imparted with a bolt holding them together.
Useful advice! E If the cement is very broad, then place under a ridge in the compound rafters set rack, called headstock. Below it rests in a puff.
For the erection of the rafter system, high-quality wood is needed, namely: beams 150 × 150 and boards with a cross-section of 50 × 150 mm. For the construction of a gable roof with your own hands, in addition to the rafters, you need to build a crate.
Wooden crate, pediments and roofing
This design is nothing more than the plane of the whole ramp. It is made from tesa up to 25 mm thick. The boards are nailed to the rafters parallel to the ridge run, starting from the bottom. Soft roof types require a continuous lathing or laying a layer of plywood or other sheet material on top of it. A vapor barrier and a heater, if necessary, are also attached to the crate.
Pediments are called side triangles formed by rafter legs and a side wall or puff. They must be covered with boards or other materials. Openings for windows or doors can be cut into them.
The roof is the last top layer of the roof, which is designed to protect the entire structure from precipitation and wind. It is mounted on a crate over a vapor barrier or insulation. A roof is made from various roofing materials. In addition to these basic elements of the roof, there are many small ones: ridge and wind boards, cornice boards and drainage systems. To build a gable roof with your own hands, you need to study the step-by-step instructions for this process.
Gable roof step-by-step instructions
Before you start installing a gable roof with your own hands, you need to do all the necessary calculations. The height of the roof depends on the region of construction. In the southern latitudes, where there is no large snow cover, the roof can be flat. In areas where a lot of rainfall is required to build a high roof. In this case, the speed of the prevailing winds must be taken into account. Under normal conditions, the roof projection should be close to an equilateral triangle.
Useful advice! All calculations are performed using the Pythagorean theorem. Using it, you can calculate all the main parameters of the roof.
After acquiring the necessary materials, installation is carried out in the following order:
- Mauerlat bars are installed on the external walls. If the house is wooden, then this is not necessary, since the Mauerlat is the upper beam of the external walls. If the walls are piled with bricks or blocks, then the Mauerlat is attached to them with bolts. In this case, the bolts must be securely walled in the masonry walls. Between Mauerlat and the wall they arrange waterproofing from roofing material;
- if the structure is layered, then the run is fixed in the same way on the central load-bearing wall;
- central racks are installed and secured with corners or “in a thorn”. They are installed every 2 to 3 meters;
- they put a ridge beam on them and securely fasten. At the same time, it is necessary to use the building level to give uprights to the racks and the horizontal ridge beam. Then the photo of the gable roof will be perfect;
- extreme rafter legs are attached to the Mauerlat and the ridge beam. They are made of boards. In the lower part, nicks are made on them, with which the rafters abut the Mauerlat. This does not allow them to move down. Installation of extreme rafters is the most crucial moment. It is necessary to ensure that the triangle of the pediment formed by them lies in the same plane. The lower part of the rafters should hang slightly behind the walls of the building to form a plumb line. If this is not possible, then planks hanging from the walls are nailed to each rafter from below. They are called filly. Then cornice boards are nailed to protect them from rain and wind;
- for the further installation of a gable roof with your own hands, you need to install intermediate rafter legs. They are installed similarly extreme opposite each rack;
- the whole structure is stiffened using struts;
- in places where there will be windows, reinforcement is done by stuffing bars for stiffness.
With a hanging structure, the procedure is similar, but there are some features. Since often the central racks may be absent, the ridge beam is made of boards. It has no support, therefore, it is nailed to the top of the rafters below their connection. The rafters themselves are attached to each other with a crossbar made of a board. The rafters are fastened in advance according to the drawing at the required angle. Only then install in place. After the installation of the rafter system is completed, the pediments are sutured. If they go under siding, then you can not sew up tightly.
Useful advice! Sewing the gables is desirable even before the installation of the battens, since the boards can be cut strictly along the contour of the triangle with a chainsaw. This eliminates the need to measure each board.
The lathing device starts from the bottom board. It must be trimmed so that you can evenly attach the hooks of the gutter system to it. The first board is laid strictly parallel to the Mauerlat at the same distance from it. The following boards are laid parallel to it with or without gaps. It depends on the type of roof.
If the roof is attic, then it is necessary to make its insulation. To do this, boards are sewn under the rafters, on which the vapor barrier is laid, and on it a heater made of mineral wool or polystyrene. Only after this the main crate is made, on which the roof is already laid. The installation of skate and wind boards, as well as a drainage system, completes the entire process.
DIY gable roof made according to all building rules by an angle will serve for a long time and without complaints.