During the entire service life, the roof should protect the home from rain, snow, wind, scorching sunshine and winter frost, while maintaining warmth and comfort in the house. Only properly designed roofs can cope with the tasks set. Roof styles in construction include many different options for arrangement, each of which must take into account all the architectural nuances of house building, as well as be appropriate in a particular climate zone.
Names of roof styles by frame design
Pitched roofs depending on the configuration of the frame can have a different shape with certain features. The following types of roofs are distinguished:
- Lean-to ;
Flat roof. These are roofs with almost no slope. Their slope does not exceed 3-4 degrees. A small deviation is betrayed so that water from the roof can flow by gravity.
This type of roof is widespread in multi-story residential construction, in industrial and warehouse buildings, and public facilities. Flat roofs for their intended purpose are operated (terraced roofs) and non-operated.
It is believed that a flat roof is cheaper and more economical than a pitched roof. Why? – With the same area of the building, the area of the pitched roof will be larger than the area of the flat roof. Since the area of the flat roof is smaller, due to the footage for its construction, less building materials are needed. Also, the work associated with the installation of a flat roof is less dangerous and much easier to carry out. Flat roofs are also simple and convenient for maintenance, routine inspections, for cleaning stormwater, working with antennas, chimneys, ventilation ducts and the roof itself. Flat roofs do not require special climbing knowledge and skills from working and maintenance personnel.
A big plus for flat roofs is the ability to conveniently place a variety of equipment on them: air conditioning units, ventilation equipment, etc. Many flat roofs are operated with the widest range of intended use: from compensating for the insufficient area of land adjacent to the building with dense urban development or in budget cottage construction, to identifying the aesthetic advantages of a flat roof (installation of winter gardens and open-air gardens on them sites, pools, etc.)
Lean-to roof. Such a roof has a fairly simple structure. Its only slope is located between two walls having different heights. The greater the difference between the height of the walls, the greater the slope at the roof. Any materials can be used for its construction. In private construction, it is mainly used for household units, garages or small garden houses.
Photos of the flat roof of a private house often illustrate the unpresentable appearance of the structure, especially if the structure is low. In addition, this option almost eliminates the possibility of arranging an mansard. But in the modern design of buildings, this roof option is quite popular.
Useful advice! For private houses, single-pitch roofs are used if it is necessary to reduce the removal of water or snow on the roadway or sidewalk.
Gable roof. View gable roof is a structure of two slopes connected to each other by means of a ridge. This roof is the most common among pitched models for private homes. The photos of the gable roof styles illustrate that the slopes can be arranged both symmetrically and with different slopes. The length of the ramps can also be different.
Due to the fact that under such roofs you can equip an mansard or mansard, they are considered quite practical. Elements of the walls of the structure that limit the mansard or mansard space are called gables. Gable roof structures ensure unimpeded precipitation and minimize leakage. It should be noted that in regions where stormy winds are frequent, the roof can be torn down due to poor streamlining.
Mansard roof. Such a roof is a kind of gable structure with a broken profile. Each slope of the mansard roof has two levels: the upper slope with a gentle slope, the lower one with a falling one. The main advantage of such a roof is the ability to maximize the use of the space under the roof. Due to the fact that the structures are unstable to strong winds, the projects of mansard roofs of private houses suggest additional fixation of the roofing in the area of the falling ramp.
Useful advice! If the mansard is small, designers recommend not to hem the ceiling. Interior decoration can be done up to the ridge, which will add room to the room.
Hip roof. This type of roof is a combination of a gable and a tent structure. Here, the gables replace the slopes in the shape of a triangle, which are called hips. The other two slopes have the shape of an isosceles trapezoid. The upper parts of the ramps are equipped with dormer windows. The frame structure can be built on a rectangular base. The space under the roof can also be used under the mansard.
The hip roof has a streamlined shape, perfectly self-cleaning and resists winds, however, it differs by a more complex design of the rafter system. In this regard, the erection of such a roof is recommended to be entrusted only to specialists. As for the cost of construction, it should be noted that during the construction there is a large percentage of roofing waste and significant costs for roof windows.
Cross-gabled roof. Another kind of gable roofs are the more complex multi-gable roofs, formed by the intersection of several gable roofs. Thus, you can get a T-shaped, L-shaped or cruciform (folded) roof. The latter is ideal for square-shaped houses. Such complex structures have one drawback when installing the roof: a large percentage of waste. To minimize it and save the budget, we recommend using soft roofing materials, such as flexible tiles, for multi-gable roofs.
Such roofs are considered one of the most complex structures both with respect to the rafter system and with respect to the laying of the roofing. This is due to the presence in the device of a large number of ribs, valleys and other structural elements. It is used in homes that have a complex polygonal shape.
The exterior of the multi-gable roof is very distinctive. Thanks to modern roofing with a rich color palette, the roof can be made bright and lively. In addition, under such a roof you can equip the side mansards of a small area.
Gambrel roof. It is a modification of the gable shape, but consisting of four slopes. Due to the “kink” of each slope is called a sloping roof. Also often this type is called the mansard roof due to the large mansard space. Thanks to the design, a complete second floor is obtained with a fairly simple device of the rafter system. In the case of a “cold” mansard, there is no need to erect a sloping roof.
Cross-hipped roof – is a popular variation of a hip roof, which gently slopes on all four sides. For a cross, the two hip roofs are laid out in an “L,” installed perpendicular to each other. These roofs are great for areas with strong winds and provide shade under the eaves all the way around the house. It’s also easier to install gutters on them, since the roofline never peaks as with a gable roof. But a cross-hipped roof loses valuable mansard space because of the inward slopes.
Existing names of roof styles
Choosing the right and reliable roof is a serious and responsible mission. After all, it is being built not for one season, but for decades. In addition, a beautiful roof is also a worthy appearance of your home. Photos of private houses, beautiful roofs of which perfectly complete the architectural composition, a clear confirmation of this. Also, each developer seeks to give the roof of the house being built a rational form that can bear all the vagaries of the weather.
The shapes of roofs for private homes, photos of which can be found on the Internet, are surprisingly diverse. Numerous models of designs can become the basis for bold ideas and help to make a choice. Modern roof projects of private houses allow you to realize the most original ideas in any style.
Before you stop on the best option for the roof of a private house, you should familiarize yourself with the existing forms and design features of roofs. The main criteria by which roofs of various types are classified are:
- roof pitch;
- form of construction;
- roof material.
How perfect this or that type of roof is for a home depends on the proper selection of all three parameters. The main factor influencing the design of the roof is the climate zone. Features of the climate will affect the design slope, its shape and the choice of roofing material. It makes no sense to build a roof with a slight slope in the area where there is a large amount of snowfall: they will accumulate and destroy the structure.
Flat roofs are relatively inexpensive to perform, as in this case minimal material and construction costs will be required. You don’t have to worry that the wind will tear off the roof. Many on flat roofs equip additional open areas for various needs. But it should be borne in mind that precipitation will spoil such a roof, forming puddles on the surface.
Useful advice! In order to ensure a flat design with natural water drainage, it is recommended to pour an expanded clay layer at a slight angle.
There is also a division of roofs into unexploited and exploited, mansard and non-mansard. The exploited roofs are just used as platforms for recreation and sports, covering them with special material. The area of such a roof, as a rule, is equal to the area of the house itself, so many owners are thinking about the rational use of this space. A serious drawback is the exposure of the coating to rain.
Mansard structures are called when the distance between the ceiling and the roof surface is not more than 1.5 m. Usually the space under such a roof is exploited for technical purposes. Unfinished roofs are used when there is an idea to use the space under the roof as a living room – an mansard. In addition, such an additional floor can be built over an existing house.
Varieties of roofs are distinguished into a large group according to the geometric shape and the number of slopes. A pitched roof is called if its angle of inclination exceeds 10 °. Roofs come with one, two and four slopes. More complex structures have combined slopes – these are hipped, multi-gable roofs. In private construction, dome or conical models are less common. Roofs, including several different forms, are called combined.
Roof styles: we select the optimal slope
Depending on the slope, there are flat and pitched roofs. Under the slope understand the angle of inclination of the slope relative to the horizon. It is measured in degrees or as a percentage of the height of the roof to the span. So, a 100% slope corresponds to 45 °. For ease of translation of these indicators, a special table has been developed.
The main reason for arranging the slope is the timely removal of precipitation from the roof. Roofs with a slight slope (up to 1%) will often leak and cause inconvenience to the owners. In addition, in terms of surface design, such roofs do not look aesthetically pleasing for private homes. Photos of flat roofs indicate that most often such structures are used for cabins, garages and outbuildings.
Correspondence table of the degree of the angle to the percentage of the roof slope:
|Degrees, º||Interest%||Degrees, º||Interest%||Degrees, º||Interest%|
In addition to precipitation, the wind affects the roof. When the slope increases by 20-30 °, the wind load increases by 5 times. And if the slope is small, the wind flow can penetrate the roof through the joints of the coating and easily disrupt the structure. With the help of a competently selected roof project of a private house, you can get the right slope angle and avoid the possible consequences of the elements.
Useful advice! When choosing a roof option, it should be borne in mind that the maximum value of the snow load on the roof is achieved when the slope is 30 °. For the roof to be able to self-clean, the slope should be 45 °.
In order to correctly determine the required slope, it is necessary to calculate the ratio of the size of the ridge to ½ of the width of the house. Multiply the obtained value by 100 – this will be the value of the roof slope. For the convenience of determining the angle of the roof, professional builders use special calculations and graphs. They can easily be found on the Internet. As for the cost of building the roof, the greater the slope, the more expensive the construction will cost.
Despite the fact that the construction of pitched roofs is more expensive, for each developer the priority will be the reliability of the roof, rather than the cost of its construction. Thus, the pitched model will be the right kind of roof of a private house. The slope of such a roof will be determined by wind and snow load on the structure, as well as attractive appearance. In addition, the angle of inclination is determined using a specific roofing. For the laying of each type of material, manufacturing companies recommend an appropriate slope.
The use of roofing depending on the slope of the roof
In order for the roof to become a reliable protection for the house, in the choice of roofing, the angle of inclination of the slopes must be taken into account:
- slate (asbestos-cement corrugated sheets) – this coating can be used with a roof slope of 13 to 60 °. If the angle of inclination is less than 13 °, water will seep into the joints, and in winter, snow will clog. This will lead to a significant reduction in the life of the roof;
- ceramic tile – the optimal slope for this material lies in the range from 30 to 60 °. When laying such tiles on roofs whose slope is less than 25 °, measures should be taken to improve ventilation and waterproofing;
- metal – the popularity of the use of this material for the roof of a private house (photos confirm this) is very high. In addition to many advantages, when laying a metal tile, the maximum angle of inclination is not standardized. Minimum slope – 15 °;
- corrugated board – used mainly for outbuildings. Laying is carried out with a slope of 10 ° without a limit;
- shingles – coating is applicable for roofs with a slope of more than 12 °. The maximum tilt angle indicator is unlimited. Suitable for intricate roofs, as it perfectly repeats the surface of any curvature;
- bituminous slate – wavy sheets of this material are used with a slope of 5 °. There is no maximum limit, however, the step of the crate depends on the angle of inclination, and with a slope of 5 to 10 ° you will have to equip a continuous flooring;
- rebated steel roofing – this material is laid with slopes starting at 20 °. There is no maximum angle limitation.
Useful advice! When choosing a roofing, one should adhere to the following rule: the denser the structure of the material, the smaller the angle of inclination of the roof slopes should be.
Given the slope of the roof when using a roofing, it is possible to achieve high-quality installation of the material, prevent leakage and increase the life of the entire structure.
Roof for a private house. Types of roofs by design: shape matters
The modern roof design involves many different and original designs. The shape of the roof determines not only the proper degree of protection of the house from external influences, but also provides architectural expressiveness. In private construction, the choice of design is limited only by the financial capabilities of the owner of the house, which allows the roof to become the main decorative element in the design of the whole house.
Beautiful roofs of private houses: photo gallery of various designs
You can definitely advise the optimal type of roof, given not only the technology of construction, but also the wishes of the owner of the house. Architectural preferences in the private sector also depend on the area where the house is located, since each region has long been distinguished by its style and identity. To find out what are the roofs of private houses (photos of numerous options are available on the Internet), you need to study this issue, after which the choice of the most suitable option will not be difficult.
Despite the simple design, there are many ways to combine a flat roof with the modern design style of private construction. Mono version of the roof has an insignificant set of components and does not require significant financial investments. In the design of flat roofs, many use a new original direction – landscaping. A roof covered with flowers and greenery will add a portion of romance to the whole house.
The most popular in suburban villages is a gable roof. Photos of private houses show typical models of gable structures. The gable roof looks original with slopes that are different in length and slope, the more classic model with symmetrical inclined planes. An important detail is the possibility of equipping the mansard under the gable roof of a one-story private house. The photo characterizes the simplicity and functionality of this type of roof.
Photos of the hip roofs of private houses indicate that such a roof design is mainly used for large-area cottages. Houses with such roofs look more solid and presentable. Due to the absence of gables in the design, the height of the houses with a hip roof visually seems smaller, but this feeling is fully compensated by the presence of dormer and dormer windows. They perfectly illuminate the mansard and make the facade of the whole house more picturesque.
Exceptional ergonomic advantages are broken roof structures. Photos of broken roofs of private houses clearly illustrate the maximum efficiency of the use of usable space. Despite the fact that the construction of such a design entails high costs, these models are actively used in private construction.
Useful advice! Those who dream of a two-story cottage, but limited financially, should pay attention to the mansard roofs. This will be an excellent option with minimal investment.
Lovers of unusual design are the best fit cross-gabled roof. Such designs can be attributed to these masterpieces. Their uniqueness lies in a large number of ribs, faces, tongs and slopes. This shape of the roof has become popular in modern private construction of cottages with mansard rooms. If a successful project is selected, you can erect a unique design associated with the roofs of fabulous towers.
Having considered all the options for roofs for private houses and carefully understanding the features and advantages of each of them, you can make the best decision in your case. The main thing is that your house should be under reliable protection.