Passiflora is an evergreen tropical vine with the incredible beauty of exotic flowers. Anyone who happened to see what a Passiflora flower looks like live will never forget this bizarre creation of nature, which evokes associations with the rich underwater world of the Red Sea. Growing Passiflora at home is not that difficult, but how to make it bloom is a slightly more complex task. As for the cultivation of Passiflora in the open field, this is only possible in a warm and humid southern climate. So, let’s take a closer look at a flowering tropical curiosity.
General description, photo of flowers
Passiflora is a member of the Passiflora family, which is why it got its second name. It can be a herbaceous, but more often liano-shrub evergreen perennial. The life cycle can also be different – annual or perennial. Woody shoots of shrub forms have a sympodial structure, i.e. branch not from the central shoot, but successively lengthening due to lateral stems. The structure of the leaves is simple, they can be whole or lobed, painted in rich green.
Flowers are formed on long stalks. Their shape is amazing and diverse, the color is very bright, tropically variegated, the average size in diameter is about 10 cm. The petals are similar in appearance to sepals, their total number is 10. In the center of the bud is an ovary with 3 stigmas. Anthers and stamens are also very decorative, large in size, well visible.
Most varieties of Passiflora bloom very fragrant, but not for long, the life of the inflorescences is short, up to 1 day, which is redeemed by their amazing brightness and intricacy of forms. Flowering usually occurs in the second half of summer or early autumn. The fruit of Passiflora is edible in many varieties, its size depends on the species, it resembles a large pear or egg in shape. This flower grows quickly, is used as a home liana or as an ampelous culture.
Types and varieties of Passiflora with a photo
The plant has a huge number of varieties, in total about five hundred have been described. The exact number of species has not been established due to the inaccessibility of many places of its natural growth (tropical impenetrable forests).
It is characterized by rapid growth, in natural conditions it quickly reaches 5 meters in length. With indoor cultivation, its dimensions are more modest and largely depend on high-quality lighting. Inflorescences are painted mainly in dark red, lilac and orange tones, have a pleasant aroma. Leaf plates are oblong, more than 10 cm long. The shoots grow a mustache, with the help of which they cling to the support, climbing up it. Fruits are edible, with fragrant pulp of dark yellow color, large.
Passiflora variable (Phoetida)
A characteristic feature of the species is the small pubescence of the shoots. The flowers are slightly smaller in diameter than other varieties, white or cream. Fruits with orange pulp are edible, juicy.
Often found in home floriculture, it has white flowers with a “finish” of blue and dark purple. Their diameter is about 10 cm. The fruit resembles the shape of a chicken egg, it is edible.
Passiflora ‘Lavender Lady’
Differs in rapid growth and large star-shaped inflorescences, up to 12 cm in diameter. May bloom as early as April. Petals light purple.
It blooms with buds of blue-blue color. The flowers are large, open up to 12 cm in diameter. The fruits are large, yellow, but in this species are inedible. Requires high support for creeping vines.
Passiflora Giant (or Tetrahedral)
You can meet this species in the wild in the tropics of Central and South America. A distinctive feature is the tetrahedral shape of the stem. It is an evergreen vine with bell-shaped flowers up to 10 cm. Their outer side is painted dark red, and the inner side combines white and purple-lilac color. The fruits are elongated, large under natural conditions, up to 30 cm. The species is unpretentious to the conditions, easily adapts to them.
Shoots liana-shaped, long, smooth. The leaf plates are wide, dark-colored, the inflorescences are very large, painted mainly in purple-white tones. The fruits can be eaten, the flesh is bright, yellow-orange or almost red.
It grows mostly in the mountainous regions of South America. The length of the vine in nature will grow to 4 m. The leaves are wide, leathery, smooth, about 10 cm long. The flowers are voluminous, painted in white and pink tones.
Passiflora Meat Red
The names Incarnata or Apricot Liana are also found. The origin of the species is the warm regions of North America. A very tall variety, the liana of which can stretch up to 10 m. It has smooth, without pubescence, stems and long-leaved leaves. It blooms in relatively small inflorescences, predominantly in lilac-violet tones, brings edible, pleasant-tasting yellow fruits.
Passiflora Edible (Edulis)
It is this cultural variety that produces an exotic fruit called passion fruit. The fruits of this species are grown on an industrial scale for sale, juices, desserts are made from them, they are used in pharmaceutical production, as well as in the manufacture of cosmetics. It blooms with small buds of white-violet color, the diameter of which is only 3 cm.
Also known as Karulea. The homeland of the species is Brazil, its dense tropical forests. The plant has taken root well in the Mediterranean region. In Russia, it is better known as the “cavalier star”, apparently due to the external resemblance to the old badges of distinction. The inflorescence has relatively thin petals and blue-white bracts. Despite the large size of the flowers, the fruits do not exceed a size of 6 cm.
Passiflora Banana (Molissima)
It grows in the wooded highlands of the South American Andes. Forms 7-meter creepers with small pink flowers with a strong aroma. After flowering, medium-sized (about 12 cm long) sweet fruits ripen. When grown at home, they are smaller in size. The first fruiting occurs in the third year after planting, with proper care.
It develops quickly, especially if regular pruning is performed. The long liana is densely covered with foliage. The color of the inflorescences is from snow-white to bright pink. Compared to other varieties, it has increased cold resistance, it can winter at a temperature of -15C.
Rolling the Passiflora liana into a ring reduces its flowering and can lead to its complete absence.
Cultivation and care
In general, the plant is considered unpretentious, however, in order for it to bloom at home, a number of agrotechnical requirements must be observed.
The soil for growing Passiflora should be light, soft, fertile and have good moisture and water permeability. To increase the aeration characteristics, soddy soil, as well as some sand and peat, can be added to the substrate. Of the ready-made soil options, store-bought formulations designed for growing lemon or begonias will be the most suitable. An indispensable condition is the arrangement of the drainage layer.
Absolutely all varieties of Passiflora are photophilous plants and require as much sunlight as possible. They can be placed on the southern window sill, provided that sufficient soil and air moisture is provided.
Container for growing Passiflora
In the initial stage of growth, the flower requires a very small capacity of no more than 10 cm in diameter. Each time it becomes necessary to transplant the Passiflora, the diameter of the pot will need to be increased by 1-2 cm. It is highly recommended not to use more spacious “growth” containers, since small tightness is one of the main factors for high-quality flowering in indoor conditions.
The material of the flower pot can be either ceramic or plastic.
How is Passiflora transplanted?
You will have to change containers quite often due to the rapid development of the vine and its root system. At the initial stage, this will have to be done annually, for adult specimens – once every 3 years. The best time to transplant is the first half of spring, preferably in early April. When transplanting, the liana is cleared of dried branches and leaves, its shoots are cut to a third of its length.
Passiflora is responsive to organics, which should be applied in the spring and then repeated twice in the summer. From mineral fertilizers, you should choose balanced compositions for decorative flowering indoor crops. These two types of top dressing should be alternated, introducing a mineral complex every 2-3 weeks from April to autumn. Fertilizers are applied by the foliar method, stirring them with water for irrigation.
How to prune Passiflora?
In spring and autumn, it is recommended to make sanitary-forming pruning. Timely pruning of shoots is not a necessity, but it has a positive effect on the development and flowering of the culture. This stimulates the growth of side shoots and, as a result, increases the number of buds. Pruning should be done twice a year: in early spring and before winter after flowering has ended. During the procedure, you need to completely get rid of dry, diseased and ugly growing shoots. Healthy branches are pruned, leaving their length at their discretion. After that, you should put the flower pot in a dark place for a period of 2 weeks, after which you can return it to the light again. If it is impossible to rearrange the plants, it should be covered as much as possible from sunlight.
All sections should be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate. In young specimens, the first pruning is done at the age of one, provided that the plant has had time to form well and get stronger.
Important! The cut is made 5 cm above the location of the kidney.
This point of care is relevant for growing Passiflora in the open field. The critical temperature for most of its varieties is the limit of -15 degrees. Lower thermometer readings are detrimental to this exotic. The greatest danger in winter for a flower is sudden changes in temperature and drafts. They can cause a very rapid loss of foliage, and during flowering – and buds.
How to propagate Passiflora?
The flower propagates both by seeds and vegetatively using cuttings. The second method is simpler, more reliable and faster, therefore, if an adult specimen is available, it is better to use it, especially since a large amount of planting material remains after annual pruning. Each method has its own characteristics.
How to grow Passiflora from seeds?
Sowing time for seeds is the end of winter or March. In order to germinate the seeds as quickly as possible, they resort to their scarification – before planting the seed material of Passiflora, they use the method of preliminary grouting their outer hard shell with fine sandpaper. After that, they are placed in a fairly aggressive environment, freshly squeezed orange or lemon juice is perfect. In comfortable conditions, seedlings after this may appear after 2 weeks, however, very often the adaptation process is delayed for 1 or even 2 months. Further care involves maintaining a moderately humid environment and a constant temperature around + 25C. As soon as the seedlings look stronger, they should immediately be seated in separate containers.
How to plant Passiflora cuttings?
A feature of this method is the rooting of cuttings not in the ground, but in water with the addition of charcoal suspension to it. Having put the cuttings in the water, it should no longer be changed until the nascent new roots are visible. On average, it will take about 2 months, during which time the charcoal will protect the water from spoilage. After the formation of roots, the cuttings are transplanted into the ground and for the first time covered with a film like a home greenhouse. This is necessary for adaptation and rapid rooting.
Passiflora is a medicinal plant with a pronounced sedative effect. Decoctions based on its dried leaves help to cope with insomnia, relieve anxiety and nervous tension in women during menopause. With the help of Passiflora tincture, it is possible to cope with cravings for alcohol. Herbalists also include it in fees for the treatment of a number of intestinal diseases. the next season.
If you follow these rules in growing, then the flowering of aichryson will be stormy and long.
The easiest way to get this flower at home is to buy it in a store. But many are interested in how aichryson can be propagated, because it is cheaper.
There are several methods:
Seeds are sown in a mixture of sand and leafy soil, after which the container is covered with a film or glass to increase the humidity in the greenhouse. Once a day, seedlings need to be ventilated and periodically moistened with a spray bottle. The first seedlings hatch 2-2.5 weeks after sowing. When they form several true leaves, they dive with a distance of 1-2 cm from each other. After another 3 weeks, the seedlings are transplanted into separate cups.
Aichryson can be rooted from cuttings, which are always enough after pruning, and this propagation method is very simple. Immediately after cutting, they are placed in a dry room for a couple of hours to dry the cut points. Then they are planted in a mixture of soil, vermiculite and sand. After a couple of weeks, you can understand whether the procedure was successful. The indicator will be new leaves that have appeared.