Pellaea occupies an important place among the fern crops of the Synopteris family. There are up to 80 different species in the genus. Under natural conditions, Pellaea is easily found in temperate and tropical latitudes on all continents. A particularly large concentration of wild-growing ferns is found in New Zealand.
The growing zone of the species is concentrated in coastal areas. The pellet is resistant to dry weather. However, if the drought is severely prolonged, the stems are exposed. When moisture appears, the plant is restored and regains its former splendor and curliness. For cultural representatives of pellets, it is necessary to create the most comfortable microclimate, then they will delight the owners with bright attractive greenery and decorate the room with their presence.
The height of an adult pellet bush, grown at home in pots, barely reaches 25 cm. The leaf plates are capable of stretching up to 30 cm in length. The width of the leaf is up to 1.3 cm. Vegetation continues throughout the year. The peak phase of activation of life processes falls in the middle of spring or summer.
Caring for Pellaea at home
Location and lighting
Fern leaves prefer good lighting. Lack of diffused light causes fading and death of leaves. The development of young shoots slows down. If little daylight enters the room, fluorescent lamps are placed next to the flowerpot.
In the summer, when the fern bushes grow in size and grow green, try to keep the room temperature at 23 ° C. With the arrival of the first cold weather, the flowerpot is transferred to the veranda or glazed loggia, where the air temperature is about 16 ° C. Here the fern will be able to rest for a while and get stronger.
Moisten the soil in the pot moderately, but do not skip watering sessions, while making sure that no water accumulates at the bottom. With an excess of liquid in the root system, rot begins to develop. During the period of the active life of the plant, from March to August, water is introduced regularly. When the top layer of soil is covered with a dry crust, you can safely proceed to the next watering. The pellet is watered 3 times a week in spring and summer.
Frequent spraying gives the foliage freshness. After the heating season comes, the air in the apartments dries up sharply. During this time period, greens need to be doused with warm water.
The soil mixture is collected from sand, peat and leafy soil in equal proportions. A drainage layer of pebbles or other materials, which is poured into the bottom of the container, will help to avoid stagnant moisture inside the pot.
When the necessary components are not at hand, the ready-made substrate is purchased in a store or on the market. Producers specially produce soil for fern crops. It is advisable to add a small amount of charcoal to it. Then the substrate will become much lighter and it will be good for air to pass through.
The crop is fed only in the first half of the year, while there is increased growth of foliage. In winter, it is recommended to abstain from fertilizers. Mineral complexes are used as a fertilizing mixture, which are added to the soil every two weeks.
When transplanting pellets, a spacious flowerpot is selected so that the difference with the previous pot in width and height is at least 2 cm. The fern is transplanted by the transshipment method, keeping the old earthen lump on the roots. As a rule, Pellaea experiences such events painfully and takes a long time to acclimatize. Finish planting in a new flowerpot by filling the voids with fresh earthen mixture.
Fern should be subjected to such stress as a last resort, if, for example, the root processes no longer fit in the container. After 2-3 years, add new soil, and shake out the old substrate by half. The bush taken out of the ground is carefully examined from all sides and divided into divisions. Then they are planted in suitable flowerpots.
Pellaea needs foliage pruning to maintain its shape. Dried or old shoots, leaves are removed from the bushes.
Pellaea breeding methods
Dividing the bush
This method is only suitable for healthy large specimens with a highly overgrown underground part. The mother bush is separated into several shoots. Developed roots are left on the parcels and planted in different containers filled with soil intended for ferns. The plant will take root faster in a new place if the flowerpots are wrapped in plastic or placed over the cut a plastic cone from a cut bottle. To activate the rooting process, the seedlings are stored in a warm and ventilated room at a temperature of about 23 ° C.
Breeding from spores
On the back of the wait here are spores that are used for reproduction and are the main reproductive organ. Spores are spread on the surface of the soil and covered with glass or film. Crops are opened daily so that condensation does not collect on the surface, and they are sprayed from a spray bottle. Containers are kept in a dark place for early spore germination. Subject to the listed conditions, the seedlings show their heads 1.5-2 months after planting.
When the seedlings turn green above the ground, the containers are returned to the lighted room. Otherwise, young plants will tend to the light source and grow too long in length. After the formation of a pair of strong leaves, they prepare for a pick, which is carried out into low compact pots.
Diseases and pests
Scales, thrips, aphids and nematodes cause special damage among insects to the vegetative parts of the Pellaea. For the destruction of pests, spraying with insecticides recommended by manufacturers is used. In order not to resort to chemical therapy and to prevent insect attacks, the foliage is constantly moistened with settled water.
Signs of damage to shoots by nematodes are expressed in yellowing and drying of leaf plates and stems. The reason for this phenomenon lies in improper watering, if cold water with a high chlorine content is used instead of soft, settled water.
Lack of fresh air, when the room is rarely ventilated, leads to a violation of the structure of the leaves. They twist and fade.
Types of Pellaea with photos
The most simple and unassuming cultural type, which does not require special skills and quickly adapts to living conditions. The leaves are pinnate, small notches are visible along the edges. The outer side of the plate is colored in dark green shades, and the lower part is one tone lighter.
The plant is characterized by a creeping root system and a brown color of leaves and shoots. Lush fronds have a rounded shape and are slightly elongated. Green Pellaea bushes stand out from other species in large sizes.
Fern shoots develop horizontally. The fronds are triangular in shape. Their length does not exceed 0.6 m.
It belongs to the North American species and lengthens by no more than 0.35 m. The fronds look attractive. The graceful cinnamon-colored leaves of a feathery structure have bare petioles that are evenly distributed along the stem. Naked pellets are often planted in alpine slides as a gardener or kept in pots as an indoor gardener. The culture is frost-resistant. Vases are recommended to be placed closer to the light.
The length of the reddish-brown leaves is about 0.5 m. The petioles are purple, the shoots are pubescent with a layer of delicate pile. Thanks to its rich color, the fern will perfectly complement any interior. Florists recommend cultivating it in a room located on the north side of the building, or planting it in a garden.
In this type of Pellaea, the ground part is represented by heart-shaped olive-colored leaves. The height of the bush is 0.4 cm. The plant tolerates heat normally and prefers bright diffused lighting. Pellea ovoid has not yet become widespread in comparison with other forms, but it also deserves attention.