Having the appropriate equipment, a couple of assistants and a good information base, it is quite realistic today to build a house on your own without even having professional skills. The foundation is laid at the heart of the construction of any building. The pile foundation is becoming increasingly popular in the construction of a private house. We will consider the pros and cons of this type of foundation of the structure and its varieties in this article.
Types of foundation
One of the important, although invisible from the outside, parts of the house is the foundation. The durability and quality of construction depends on how correctly the installation of this construction site is completed.
Depending on the installation technology and the field of application, foundations can be classified as follows:
- The strip foundation is used mainly in low-rise construction. It is divided into prefabricated, consisting of blocks, and monolithic – in the form of formwork, into which concrete is poured
- A monolithic foundation, very strong, is used in places where there is a risk of subsidence of the soil. It is a monolithic reinforced concrete slab.
- The pillar foundation is laid during the construction of one-story houses . It is performed in the form of columns, which are then connected by a beam strapping.
- The pile foundation has recently become more widespread due to the reliability, versatility and accessibility of DIY installation.
Pile foundation and stages of its installation
The laying of the pile foundation is used in the construction of buildings of different floors. This type of foundation does not require laborious digging pits, which is a significant advantage over other types of foundation of the house. One of the main advantages of this method is the ability to install in almost any terrain, with any soil.
In order to determine the pros and cons of a pile foundation, consider its varieties.
Stages of laying the foundation pile
Before the beginning of the arrangement of any foundation, it is necessary to carry out certain preparatory work and calculations, which include the following.
- engineering geological analysis of soil;
- determination of the type of piles for the foundation;
- a detailed drawing of a house plan indicating all the details of the structure;
- calculation of the load on the foundation;
- drawing of the underground part;
- installation of piles;
- calculation and grill fill;
- ground floor installation;
- calculation of the cost of the foundation .
Pile foundation options
The foundation on piles has several varieties that differ in installation technology and scope.
These are reinforced concrete rods that clog deep into the ground. The technology of this construction is based on accurate calculations of the distribution of the entire load of the future building to these foundation supports. Piles are driven deeper until they reach the most stable soil area. This type of foundation foundation is used in industrial construction, since the work of driving piles into the soil is carried out by heavy special equipment. This type of piles is not suitable for a country house or cottage, since it is impossible to install them with your own hands.
With this type of foundation, you must first drill the wells into which the piles are laid and concrete is poured. This type of installation of supports is most often used in the construction of multi-storey buildings. The technical complexity, complex calculations and the high cost of work are minus the foundation on the drill piles.
Screw pile foundation
This type of pile foundation is most preferred when building a country house. Do-it-yourself screw pile installation (video can be found on many construction sites) is most affordable in terms of price and volume of work. The basis for such a foundation is steel pipes with a special thread like a screw. Thanks to such cutting, the piles are “screwed” into the ground, and with the help of screw blades are firmly held in it (as shown in the video). If the soil is too loose, use screw supports with threads throughout the pipe. Concrete is poured into steel pipes, giving greater structural stability.
Good to know! A screw pile foundation is the best way to create a foundation for a light frame house .
A pile-screw foundation, the pros and cons of which are discussed below, can be laid even without the help of special equipment, therefore this method of arranging the foundation is the most affordable for DIY installation.
Advantages and disadvantages of the pile-screw method
The main advantages of the foundation on screw piles are:
- affordable price;
- speed of work;
- the possibility of self-installation;
- laying in almost any soil;
- independence from the time of year.
- It is made without preliminary earthwork;
For stability and durability of the foundation, screw piles are screwed before immersion in hard ground
The disadvantages of the pile-screw method include:
- susceptibility to corrosion in violation of the protective layer of the steel pipe;
- the impossibility of installation in rocky places;
- problematic installation near other buildings;
- the need for accurate calculations of the depth of the support.
The main stages of laying a pile-screw foundation
Being the most advanced method today, the pile-screw version of the arrangement of the foundation attracts primarily with the possibility of DIY installation. Thus, the future owner of a country house can significantly save on expensive equipment and professional builders.
The first stage of work is the study of the soil, a detailed calculation and drawing of a house plan.
Usually, at the initial stage of construction, the construction site is leveled and excavation works associated with digging pits or trenches are carried out. Laying the foundation on screw piles does not require such actions, which reduces the complexity and increases the speed of the process.
At the second stage, the installation of piles under the foundation is made: at intervals of about 2 m, markers are placed – places where piles will be twisted in the future. Based on the purpose of the building under construction, a selection of piles of a certain diameter and weight is made.
The next step is to tighten the screw supports. In the marking places shallow drilling is performed. Piles are screwed into the ground like a screw. This work can be done either using mechanisms or by manual method.
On a note! On average, laying a pile-screw foundation can take about two days.
After installing the supports, they are vertically aligned and the hollow part of the pipes is poured with sand-cement mortar, which increases the stability of the piles and protects them from corrosion.
The last stage of installation of the foundation is the union of the supports with a monolithic grillage and the subsequent creation of the basement of the house.
Pile and grillage foundation
Once the piles are installed, they are connected by a monolithic grillage, on which the whole building is subsequently erected. This design evenly distributes the load on the supports of the foundation and is the basis of the basement of the house.
The grillage is made in a tape or monolithic way and is made of wooden beams or reinforced concrete slabs that combine the foundation supports. Depending on the location, the pile foundation with a monolithic grillage is divided into: high, intermediate and buried.
Important! Due to the natural decrease in the temperature of the soil during the cold season, a phenomenon occurs inside the soil called frost geological soil heap.
Moisture in the soil freezes in winter and increases in volume. This can lead to squeezing the foundation, and therefore at home. To counter this phenomenon, piles are combined with a high grillage at a height of 0.1 – 0.15 m above ground level. Typically, such a grillage is installed under buildings of low weight.
An intermediate grillage is placed at ground level using a sand or gravel pad. The disadvantage of this type of grillage is the insecurity from frost heaving of the soil, which can tear out piles and damage the masonry.
A low grillage is located below ground level. It is lowered to the freezing depth in heaving soils; on weakly heaving soils, the structure is laid 0.2-0.3 m below ground level.
When constructing a private house, a high pile foundation with a monolithic grillage is most often used. When arranging the foundation on screw piles, a wooden beam can serve as grillage, which is fixed with anchor bolts.
The pros and cons of the pile-grillage foundation are as follows:
Advantages of the pile-grillage foundation:
- affordable price;
- the ability to do it yourself;
- speed of installation;
- reliability – almost no shrinkage.
Cons of the design:
- rigorous calculation of pile foundation grillage;
- used only for light buildings;
- the effect of corrosion on the steel part.
Pile foundation. Pros and cons
One of the main advantages of a pile foundation during the construction of a house is affordability and price. This is the most attractive factor for those who build a home with their own hands. An important advantage is also the speed of arranging the foundation and the ability to work at any time of the year.
Also, the advantage of this option for installing the foundation is the stability and reliability of the structure: the blades of screw piles compact the soil well. In addition, this makes it possible to equip the foundation in almost any soil.
The disadvantages of the foundation on piles include the possible shrinkage of the structure. To avoid such a phenomenon, it is necessary to conduct a soil study and accurate calculations with a drawing of a pile foundation with a grillage. Careful preparatory work can be attributed to the minuses of the pile foundation.
Of great importance when arranging the foundation on piles is the quality of the material used. If the protective layer is violated, the steel structures of the foundation undergo corrosion.
Given the pros and cons of the pile foundation, choosing it as the basis of a country house is today considered the most optimal and promising.