Primulaceae

Primulaceae

Primulaceae is an ornamental crop that pleases with its flowering in the garden, and often acts as a bright holiday gift that can bring spring colors to the room during the cold months. In the spring, these flowers are among the first to bloom in the garden, but in order not to lose them during the first winter after planting and not reduce the decorative look, it is important to adhere to the basic rules of cultivation and care.

General description

Common Primulaceae is a genus with a huge number of forms and hybrids. Every year, breeders bring out new varieties with fancy colors and improved characteristics that can make it easier to care for this crop.

In the wild, the genus has a wide distribution: it is found in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, South America, the Himalayas, etc. For normal development, the plant chooses places with high humidity – the banks of rivers, streams, meadows, in which it lingers for a long time in spring moisture.

Under the ground, a small rhizome develops, from which a basal rosette is formed at the soil level. It consists of oblong or oval leaf plates that can completely cover the ground. Sometimes the leaves are raised above the ground on oblong petioles.

In different forms, peduncles can be tall or squat, single or with a large number of buds. As a rule, the more buds on the peduncle, the smaller the diameter of each opened flower. In nature, the shape of the flower is always simple, double is a mutation, but breeding varieties can be simple, semi-double and double.

After flowering, a spherical achene is formed. In hybrids, bushes grow from seeds in the next generation that do not have all the decorative properties of the mother flower, so seed propagation is not suitable for them.

The genus includes perennial and annual forms. This point is important to find out when buying a new copy.

Growing from seed

When growing from seeds, it should be remembered that the germination of the seed of this crop decreases every month, so it is important to pay attention to the seed packaging time. When collecting seed at home, it is best to sow immediately.

Scarification

Keeping in a cool place is an integral stage of seed reproduction. Scarification can be done in two ways: before sowing or immediately after sowing in pots or planting boxes.

The period of keeping in the cold should be at least 4 weeks (more possible). The temperature does not rise above -10°C.

Sowing

The best time to start seed propagation is early February. When sowing, it is important to take into account the planting density: there should be no more than 5 seeds per 1 cm 2 . The ideal substrate will be ordinary soil for seedlings.

Seeds are laid out on the surface of the soil, without sprinkling on top of the earth. After that, humidification is carried out with a fine spray. The container is placed in a lighted place with a temperature of 17-18 ° C, covered with a transparent film or a glass lid. It will take about a month or two before the first sprouts appear. During this time, the container must be periodically opened for ventilation and moistened with a spray bottle.

Seedling care

After the appearance of seedlings, the film or glass is removed every day for 10-20 minutes, and after two weeks of such hardening, it is completely removed. Seedling growth is slow. At this stage, the complete drying of the substrate should not be allowed.

When 2-3 true leaves appear on young bushes, they can dive. The first time this is done with tweezers, but when the plant becomes larger, the picks are done manually. Seedlings are grown for two years, after which they can be planted in open ground.

Landing

Landing is carried out according to certain rules. If they are not adhered to, then a viable specimen can be destroyed.

Time

The best period for transplanting this flower into open ground is considered to be spring – the middle or end of May. You can postpone planting until the second half of September, especially for weak specimens that are able to increase the vegetative mass over the summer.

Place

The choice of location depends on what kind of gardener is dealing with. Alpine Primulaceae prefers open areas with direct sunlight. In partial shade or shade, these forms will not show bright flowering even with perfect care.

Other taxa prefer partial shade. It is ideal to plant them under trees or bushes, where the earth does not dry out and natural partial shade forms. It is best to choose a site where a shadow is set at noon – this will not only prolong flowering, but also preserve the brightly colored petals.

The site must be well drained, prolonged stagnant water can lead to root rot.

The soil

The soil for normal growth should be moisture-intensive, but loose enough to ensure normal gas exchange in the root system. Clay substrate is well suited. If it is too heavy, it can be improved by adding the following ingredients (based on 1m2 ) :

  • 10 liters of coarse sand;
  • 2 kg of rotted cow manure;
  • 1 kg of vermiculite;
  • 2 kg chopped sphagnum.

After adding additives, the bed is dug up to the depth of a shovel bayonet. It makes no sense to make additives deeper, since the roots are located in the upper layer of the earth and do not penetrate deep into the earth.

Landing pattern

The distance between adjacent specimens depends on the size of the adult Primulaceae:

  • for large varieties – 20-30 cm;
  • for compact varieties – 1-15 cm.

You should strive to ensure that as you grow, there is no open ground between neighboring plants. The root socket should be located directly above the substrate, it cannot be immersed in the ground.

Planting Primulaceae

Agrotechnics of cultivation

Growing a perennial variety planted in a suitable area does not require much time and effort. The main activities are watering, fertilizing, pruning faded flower stalks and preparing for winter.

Watering

The natural habitat of this culture is characterized by high humidity, so it is important that at the time of the appearance and development of flower stalks, the soil does not dry out for a long time. Normal care is to water once a week in the absence of natural precipitation. At the same time, water stagnation should be avoided.

Strict watering rules are observed only in spring, and for summer-flowering species – in summer. Ephemeral varieties that lose ground organs after flowering are completed do not need watering after wilting.

Mulching

For ease of cultivation and to reduce the time required to care for this crop, it is recommended to use mulching. A layer of mulch allows you to retain moisture longer after watering, especially while the flowers have not grown and the foliage has closed. Dry peat or dried humus is ideal for mulching. This measure will help make the watering regime less intense and introduce organic nutrients into the soil.

Top dressing

Violent flowering depletes the soil, therefore, to preserve the decorativeness of perennial Primulaceae, periodic fertilization is necessary. In April, you need to add a phosphorus-potassium complex, which will contribute to the formation of large numerous buds and the brightness of the petals. Fertilizers must be applied on moist soil.

Further, fertilizers are applied at intervals of 2-3 weeks. The last top dressing takes place in the first half of August, after which fertilizers are stopped until the next season.

Pruning

Pruning for Primulaceae is of two types. The first is to remove and pluck the wilted flowers. If they are not removed, then the period of bud formation will be fleeting, and in addition, the decorative effect of the flower bed will drop sharply.

The second type of pruning is to remove shrunken or damaged leaves. This must be done so that the dry parts do not become a hotbed of fungal diseases. Before the onset of cold weather, the basal rosette is not removed, as it serves as insulation for the roots during frost. You can cut off the old foliage only next spring.

Transfer

Over time, the bushes grow too large, and crowding worsens the intensity of flowering. To avoid this, with home cultivation, once every 3-4 years, the bushes need to be replanted, reducing the density. During transplantation, you need to divide the bush into 2-3 parts.

Primulaceae transplant

Primulaceae Care

Often this flower is given for spring holidays in the form of potted plants. Sometimes these specimens are planted in open ground, but you can continue growing in the room.

The basic rules for home care are as follows:

  • a room in a bright place without direct sunlight;
  • temperature 16-20°C;
  • lack of drafts;
  • perfect drainage;
  • fertilization for flowering crops once every two weeks;
  • periodic plucking of dry flowers and shoots.

The main mistakes of home growing and care, due to which you can lose a Primulaceae, are related to humidity and watering. It is important to remember that spraying on the leaf of this plant is contraindicated. Watering should be carried out only by the lower method: water is poured into the pan, and if the substrate has absorbed everything, you need to add another portion. Excess moisture is poured out of the pan after 20 minutes to avoid stagnation.

Watering Primulaceae

Species and varieties

Now in this genus there are more than 500 species and varieties. During the acquisition, it is necessary to recognize the name, since then it will be possible to determine the features of care from it. The main differences relate to how many years a plant can vegetate, how much sun it needs to grow, and how long and lush it will bloom.

The most popular types of primrose:

  • Stemless (ordinary) – grows mainly on alpine slopes in the immediate vicinity of the melting snow cover. Quite large leaves are partially preserved throughout the winter. Peduncles with single buds can grow to a height of 6-20 cm. The petals are painted in light yellow or white with a purple center. The first buds open in March, sometimes there is a second flowering in early autumn.
  • High – occurs naturally in the Carpathians and Western Europe. The veins on the leaf blades are depressed on top and convex on the underside of the leaf, which makes them especially attractive. A characteristic feature is the presence of a jagged edge along the edge. Up to 15 buds develop on peduncles, from which flowers 2 cm in diameter of pale yellow color appear. The peduncle is high – up to 35 cm, flowering continues from early April to May or early June in the absence of heat. Based on this variety, a large number of large-flowered hybrids have been bred.
  • Siebold is a species that blooms in summer, therefore it is often used for plantings with a continuous flowering cycle. The peak of decorativeness falls on June. Flowers can be all shades of pink and lilac. Inflorescences-umbrellas are formed on peduncles. After the peduncles have dried, all terrestrial vegetative parts of the plant die off until the next spring.
  • Spring (medicinal) – occurs mainly in Europe. A medium-sized shrub with characteristic leaf blades, on which the relief of the veins is expressed. The petals are yellow, and the center is usually orange. Flower stalks appear from April to June. Representatives of this species in the wild most often have a mutation in the form of terry, so a huge number of terry hybrids have been created on the basis of it.

Possible problems

The main problems in the home cultivation of perennial primrose are associated with fungal diseases and insect damage.

If signs of a fungal disease are found – a change in color, the appearance of spots on the leaves, the drying of individual small fragments on the leaf plates – the affected parts should be removed immediately. The remaining plants are treated three times with any antimycotic agent. Best suited “Fundazol”, “Topsin”, etc.

If the landing is attacked by a spider mite, you should resort to spraying “Aktellik”. Processing is carried out 3-4 times with an interval of a week. If there are bugs on the foliage, they must be collected by hand.

Sometimes the plant can wither for no apparent reason. In this case, you need to carefully examine the soil under the root rosette for the presence of nematodes. If parasites are found, then they are treated with Ragor.

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