The pediment is a rather significant element of pitched roofs, which is endowed with a protective and aesthetic function. To the smallest detail, you should think over the options for its arrangement even at the design stage of the structure. Next, we will talk about the methods according to which the roof gable is sheathed and built, and all materials and technologies existing today will be presented.
What is a pediment and what is it for?
What are roof pediment? These are sections of the wall, which are limited on the sides by ramps, and below the cornice. If we are talking about gable roofs, it is worth noting that they are often presented in the form of a triangle or pentagon.
It is interesting! In some sources, under the pediment of the roof, they mean only a part of the wall under the slopes, laid out simultaneously with the main walls by the masonry method. In relation to wooden structures, the term “gable wall” is often used.
As for the need to erect gables, it is fully justified by the most important functions with which they brilliantly cope:
- Protecting the attic rooms of the gable roof from the wind, as well as precipitation in the form of rain and snow.
- Maintaining a comfortable temperature. A gable roof involves the equipment of a residential attic room, which simply needs to be insulated. Even if it will not be residential, the unfinished gables will turn into a “black hole” for the heating system, bringing the figures in the bills of the owners of the house to sky-high values.
- Providing additional rigidity to the roof structure. The pediment creates an auxiliary support for the rafters, partially unloading them. This, in turn, has a beneficial effect on the level of reliability, as well as the durability of the roof, especially if the house is located in an area characterized by strong gusts of wind.
In addition, the gable of the roof of the house gives the structure a spectacular appearance. Thanks to decorative materials, you can easily renew the look of an aging building without spending a lot of money on it.
Pediment: the finishing touch to building construction, variety of configurations
Although in the minds of most people, the pediment is associated with a triangular or pentagonal element, these two forms of design variations are not at all limited. Photos of gables amaze with a variety of configurations. Modern architecture presents the following types:
- Keel-shaped. In this case, the name speaks for itself. Despite the grace, in modern architecture, such a solution is rarely used, because from such an element of the roof antiquated.
- Semicircular. This option, like the previous pediment, is currently also practically not used in construction. However, the reason for the low popularity lies in the complexity of this design.
- Trapezoidal. It resembles a trapezoid, the large side of which is at the bottom. This design has found wide application in the construction of semi-hip roofs.
- Triangular. The presented species is perhaps the most common today. If the roof is symmetrical, the triangle, accordingly, will be equilateral.
- Male. It is composed of logs in the form of a triangle, and is a continuation of the crowns of the gable walls.
- Interrupted. The horizontal cornice of such a pediment is interrupted in order to insert one or more windows.
- Luchkovy. Its shape resembles a semi-oval stretched bow. In the case of an increase in the degree of steepness of the bend, it takes the form of a semicircle.
In addition, today you can also find stepped structures, the side parts of which are made in the form of ladders, and the roofing is made without creating frontal overhangs.
Pediment of houses: photos of design variations
To date, there are many ways of arranging and decorative options for pediment planes. Of course, the decision largely depends directly on how the owners plan to use the space located under the roof. However, it is necessary to take into account what kind of materials the construction of the building box and roof is supposed to be.
How to make a pediment roof? Often it is performed in the form of:
- prefabricated frame of wooden battens with the laying of the insulating layer and the outer lining of the lining or siding;
- brick or aerated concrete masonry with further surface finishing with cement-sand plaster;
- masonry of a bar or log in the form of a continuation of the vertical part of the load-bearing walls of a log structure.
Note! Often, the design of the pediment of a house significantly affects the general appearance of the facade of the building. Thus, for structures with complex broken roofs and additional slopes, the decoration of the pediment walls must exactly match the general style of the building.
Looking through numerous photos of the gables of the roofs, you can see that the building is characterized by a very spectacular view, the roof of which consists of 4 gable sections. In the presented case, four triangles or trapezoids become an integral element of the facade part. In this regard, for brick and wooden houses, the structure is adjusted in such a way that visually the masonry looks like a single whole.
Roof pediment: basic approaches to self-creation
To date, in the process of erecting low-rise buildings, three main approaches are used to the issue of the correct design of the gable of a house. Perhaps the main difference lies in the method of erection and binding of the gable vertical walls to the rafters and the roof frame.
For compact single-story buildings, as a rule, pediment elements are produced simultaneously with rafter assemblies according to a single template, which guarantees the highest accuracy of the structure. In this case, the installation of a gable roof is carried out, starting with the installation of gables, ridge beams, and only at the next stage rafter pairs and struts are exposed. Due to this, it is much easier to assemble the pediment of the structure.
For large buildings, differing in the significant dimensions of the roof slopes, the filing of the gables is performed after the rafters, lathing and all the structural parts of the frame are installed. The more complex the roof structure, the later the gable elements are constructed.
Brick buildings can be built according to the combined scheme. If the plane of the pediment is planned to be closed with aerated concrete or brickwork, it is built until the rafter system is organized.
Note! The pre-designed pediment, although they greatly facilitate the process of erecting the rafter frame in the event of a strong wind, suggest a rather careful adjustment of the dimensions so that gaps do not form between the masonry and overhangs due to the mismatch in the dimensions of the beams.
Perhaps the simplest method of assembling the pediment is the organization of the frame structure of the crate of wooden planks or beams, laying of insulation, waterproofing layer, as well as the filing of the pediment with plastic siding or lining. It is worth noting that the process of laying insulation on the pediment of a building is in many ways similar to the procedure for insulating a roof.
How to make a pediment roof pediment: theoretical aspects of construction
Speaking about the sequence of work on the arrangement of pediment, it is worth noting that it is determined primarily by the material that was given preference. Often the choice arises between brick and wood.
It is possible to make brickwork in half a brick on a viscous mortar. To give the material the desired shape, it is enough just to carry out the processing with a saw.
Important! The consumption of bricks per square meter, taking into account the fit, is approximately 35-40 pieces.
In this case, it is preferable to use hollow brick, since its weight is significantly less compared to the classical material, which means that the load on the foundation is minimal.
Having decided to use wood, first of all, it is necessary to form a frame, and then finish with 30 mm thick boards. At the same time, plywood, which is characterized by resistance to moisture, is very often used for sheathing the pediment of a bath.
In order to give an attractive appearance to the outside, you can install siding or lining, which will be excellent protection against moisture and create the effect of thermal insulation.
If it is planned to turn the attic into a living space, the question arises of how to sew the pediment roof gable.
Note! Experts recommend using basalt-based mineral wool for this, but in the absence of it, standard foam is quite suitable.
To carry out installation, a frame of boards is formed. Their width should correspond to the thickness of the insulation. Often an indicator of 15 mm is enough. After that, from the outside of the pediment, sheathing with clapboard or siding with a layer of vapor barrier is performed, and inside the structure is closed with boards or shields.
Sheathing the pediment with clapboard or siding is done in the same style as the whole house
Armed with knowledge of how to make a pediment, you can create unrivaled comfort in the house, keeping it warm and organizing excellent protection against wind and rain.
Pediment of the house: useful practical tips for making calculations
It is possible to calculate exactly how much building materials will be required to finish the gable of the roof, guided by the knowledge of the school geometry course, or rather, the formula for calculating the area of the figures.
Note! To determine the area of a pediment of a classic triangular shape, you should use the formula: S = 0.5 B * H, where S is the area expressed in square meters, B is the width of the structure (length of the base), and H is the height of the figure.
In the process of calculating the area of attic walls for the height, it is necessary to take the distance from the ceiling of the first floor to the ridge of the roof. In this case, the length of the base should be taken as the dimensions of the wall on which the pediment is arranged.
The calculation of the amount of materials for a triangular gable is in no way related to whether the roof is symmetrical. The area of the attic walls, presented in the form of triangles, does not change due to the difference in the slope of the roof slopes.
To determine the area of trapezoidal gables of wooden houses, you need to be guided by the following formula: S = C * (A + B) / 2, where S is the area, C is the height, A and B are the length of the bases (walls and roof planes). Thus, the amount of material needed to finish the attic wall in the shape of a trapezoid is the result of multiplying the height by half the total length of the bases.
If the shape of the wall does not coincide with the standard geometric figure, it is conventionally divided into several right-angled triangles, the area of each of them is determined, and then the obtained values are summed up.
Having completed the calculation of the pediment, it is necessary to determine the dimensions of one element of the material, which will act as a finishing one. For this, the value of the length of the sheet or panel is multiplied by the width indicator. The next action is quite predictable: the area of the gables is divided by the area of the material element, thus calculating the total number of units of building raw materials.
Roof cornice: step by step instructions for shaping
The process of creating a pediment cornice is a mandatory procedure during the installation of any type of roof. If the visual characteristics can sometimes be closed eyes, the practical functions of these elements cannot be ignored.
Arrangement of an eaves overhang can be carried out by one of the following methods:
- lengthening the rafter legs;
- increasing the length of the rafters by filly.
The first method is characterized by incredible simplicity. In the presented case, the cornices are formed by means of elongated rafter legs, the edges of which protrude beyond the ramps. To increase the length of the overhang, it is enough just to pick up longer beams for the rafters.
In the second case, the lengthening of the edges of the rafters, in contrast to the first method, occurs with the help of filly – stackable parts, for the production of which thinner boards are used.
The choice of the method of forming cornices directly depends on the length of the slopes and the parameters of the roof structure.
Speaking about how to make a cornice on the pediment, it should also be borne in mind that the finished overhangs need to be hemmed. This process can be performed using one of the following technologies:
- Direct binder. It implies the creation of a special box, which is located at right angles to the wall of the building, it is to it that the material is attached.
- Diagonal hem. In this case, the eaves are attached in such a way that the material is parallel to the roof slopes.
Note! The laying of the foundation for the eaves overhangs occurs at the very end of the work associated with the installation of the rafter system. When the lathing is completely ready, the rafters should be laid out in a single level, after which the wind boards can be attached to them.
It is not difficult to independently design the eaves of the structure. To do this, just carefully study the installation technology. Well-designed and well-ventilated gable overhangs will provide reliable protection of the roof from premature destruction.
How to make a tide on the pediment: the subtleties of the technology of work
The organization of the ebb involves the implementation of a series of specific works, and it is incredibly important to do everything correctly using measuring instruments. Due to this, it will be possible to avoid distortions, distortions.
To complete the work, you have to stock up on the following tools:
- tape measure;
- self-tapping screws;
- roofing nails;
- knife cutter.
The first step is to install the rafters on which the roofing material will be laid. For them, you should take wooden blocks, the thickness of which is 50 mm, and the height is 80 mm.
Note! The tree must certainly be well dried, without knots. Before use, it should be impregnated with special compounds against fungi and insects.
The angle of the rafters is in the range from 20 to 45 degrees. In this case, the final value is selected taking into account the amount of precipitation that falls in a particular area. As for the width of the ebb, this value should not be less than the size of the roof overhang above the wall. This is often about 500 mm. This length is enough to prevent rainwater from entering the building facade.
According to the rules for organizing the gable of the roof, the rafters are attached to the wall at a distance of at least 600 mm from each other. After the roofing material is fixed on them and the crate is laid, it is necessary to seal the joints of the wall with the ebb.
If the rafters are replaced by the wall of the house, which is used instead of the pediment, some craftsmen form a slope, and a metal tide is fixed on top of it with screws. This design is characterized by reliability, protects the attic from the influence of precipitation, and also provides the ability to effectively drain water from the pediment.
Observing the above recommendations, it is easy to independently cope with the task of installing an ebb tide, turning it into a home decoration.
Aerated concrete pediment: a few secrets of masonry
Before proceeding with the organization of the pediment of a building made of aerated concrete, a number of calculations should be carried out. If the pediment is rectangular, they are completely uncomplicated. First of all, it is necessary to determine the indicator of the height of the roof (ridge), and then calculate the area of the pediment. This can be done according to the rules of elementary geometry.
Note! The calculation of the height of the ridge is the most important task at this stage. In the process of determining this value, especially when it comes to single-story structures, it is important that the ratio of the height of the pediment and the height of the wall is 1: 1. Thus, you can turn the attic into an additional room.
Laying the gable of aerated concrete involves the following sequence of steps:
- After calculating the height and area of the pediment, you can start marking the end walls. For triangular buildings, everything is simple: just find the middle of the lower leg. In the designated place, the rail should be fixed – thus, the center of the future pediment is marked.
- Having stretched the laces from the top of the rail to the edges of the facade, you need to find the two remaining lines of the triangle along them, after which you can lay out the extreme rows. Then they start laying the blocks.
- If you plan to equip the attic with a window, you will have to consider the place for installing the window unit. Having laid out several rows of gas blocks to the level of the opening, you need to make markings and place the frame on the blocks. After that, you can continue laying the blocks close to the frame.
- After all the blocks are laid, the final stage remains – cutting the blocks. It is necessary to get even sides of the product slopes. Cutting off a straight line, you should focus on the laces, and then grind the irregularities with a special grater.
Armed with the knowledge of how to lay out gables, you can be sure that the roof will be laid on a very solid base on each side of the façade.
If you lay out the pediment according to the rules, you can be sure that the roof will be laid on a very reliable foundation
Brick pediment: basic steps of creation
The process of organizing the roof pediment with your own hands is performed in a certain sequence:
- Along the perimeter of the building, in places where it is planned to erect a pediment, brickwork is carried out in two bricks, but not in length, but in its thickness.
- A new row of masonry is first driven out without the use of mortar.
- On the tensioned rope on the side bricks, marks are created taking into account the future thickness of the seam along which the product is cut. Due to this, the slopes will turn out with smooth, but not with serrated faces.
- The end wall is trimmed to match the tensioned rope.
- The pediment is driven out according to this principle to the very top.
- Then you have to align the sides.
- The masonry is reinforced with reinforcing elements every 4-5 rows.
- Depending on the dimensions of the pediment, reinforcing supports are being erected inside the attic or attic. They are placed perpendicular to the plane of the base masonry.
In addition, if a decision was made to arrange windows on the pediment, the need for additional reinforcement of the above-portal masonry must certainly be taken into account.
A feature of the brickwork is that it is driven out without going beyond the bounds of the stretched rope. The initial production of cut bricks that correspond to the shape of the slope will save you from further laying gaps on an already formed extension.
Important! If it is supposed to build a massive pediment, in order to strengthen the wall, reinforcing pilasters should be built.
Speaking about the pediment roof gable made of bricks, it is worth noting that it is capable of ensuring long-term operation of the entire structure. Moreover, its construction does not imply significant costs of money and the use of complex technological solutions. In addition, the presented option is characterized by a decent appearance and no need for special care.
How to make a visor on the pediment yourself: a quick guide
In order to provide complete protection against water ingress, the best option would be to arrange a visor having a slope width of at least 60 cm. It is desirable that the product design is not too conspicuous and does not spoil the general appearance of the structure.
As for the dimensional slopes of the roof, it makes no sense for them to make a cantilever design of the visor. A much more rational solution would be to arrange a canopy with outriggers. Often they try to ensure that the width of the visor is not less than the width of the foundation strip.
The easiest option is to form a visor on miniature wooden rafter supports, which in their structure resemble filly. At the same time, it is necessary to make and fix the supporting structure of the visor before the pediment is closed by means of lathing or siding.
As for the construction of the visor of the pediment, it should be characterized by rigidity and at the same time lightness. To do this, on the rafter mini-supports, it is necessary to sew several bars of the crate. Ideally, you can design a visor with a continuous lining of the slope with a rail or clapboard. In this case, the slope is recommended to be formed from the remains of soft roofing material and sewn up with metal tile or slate.
After the flooring is laid, care should be taken to protect the area where the roofing material of the canopy adjoins the wall.
Useful advice! The junction area of the visor is easy to arrange in the form of gutters of the drainage system. Due to this, it is possible to minimize the amount of water that drains onto the visor along the surface of the pediment.
The simplest solution is to seal the joint between the metal and the wall material by means of a sealant or by sticking tape from roofing felt. Then it is necessary to form and sew a narrow strip of metal cornice over the sealed layer.
Pediment cladding: variety of materials used
Speaking about how to sheathe the pediment, many experts advise giving preference to siding. The technology presented involves the use of special panels that are designed to decorate building facades. Outwardly, they are similar to boarding and are conveniently fastened to each other by means of an end lock.
Siding is good because it does not imply additional decorative finishes and can retain its original appearance and technical characteristics for at least several decades.
For finishing the pediment siding, one of the following types of material can be used:
- Vinyl. Being made of polyvinyl chloride, it is a solid monolithic single-layer lamella of a certain configuration. The material is not prone to crack during operation and is not susceptible to biocorrosion.
- Metal. Such plastic is characterized by high strength and durability. In addition, he tolerates fairly substantial temperature fluctuations.
- Wooden. Glued lining is made from wood fibers, which are mixed with adhesive resins, after which they are pressed under the influence of high temperature and high pressure.
- Cement. On the surface of cement slabs by stamping, a drawing is applied that imitates natural wood or other natural materials.
Important! In the process of installing cement siding, respiratory protection must be used. Thus, it is possible to protect the lungs from the ingress of silicon dust, which can cause serious diseases.
Continuing the topic of how to sew up the pediment, special attention should be paid to the ceramic version, the feature of which is that it can be used to decorate the facade in a unique design. This gives the impression that the building was erected from natural materials.
How to close the pediment of the roof of the house: a few more finishing options
In addition to such common siding, other finishes are also popular. The most modern solutions include:
- profiled sheet;
- block house or lining.
The term “plastic” often refers to panels made of polyvinyl chloride that are specifically designed for outdoor use. Unlike products used indoors, the presented material is able to withstand significant temperature fluctuations and exposure to ultraviolet radiation well.
In the process of making pediment from corrugated board, thin metal sheets with grooves and ridges are used. They are coated with a layer of zinc or a polymer, which acts as a protection of the material from moisture and other destructive factors.
Note! The metal profile is an excellent option for arranging the facades of buildings. But if in the case of roof finishing, the profiled sheets look really worthy, then this cannot be said about the pediment.
As for the finishing with a block house, plastic lamellas and metal profiled sheets can be replaced with natural wood. In particular, a wooden pediment will look great on buildings erected from rounded logs, beams or made in accordance with frame technology.
It should be borne in mind that wood does not tolerate moisture and direct ultraviolet rays. In this regard, it will be necessary to take care of the protection of such a finish. In this case, you will need to purchase varnish, paint, water-repellent impregnations or other similar substances.
In addition, the options presented, in comparison with siding gables, are characterized by a much shorter service life. This is due to the need for constant updating of paint or varnish, which reduces the life of the material. Thus, finishing with a block house can be preferred if the selected option for designing the facade of the building requires it.
How to sheathe a pediment with siding: detailed instructions
When deciding on the use of siding, the question inevitably arises of how to sew up the pediment using this technology. So, the manual on the organization of decoration involves the following steps:
- Before sheathing the pediment, it is necessary to carry out preparations, which includes installing scaffolding, removing scraps of old plastic foil, cutting off protruding residues of polyurethane foam, as well as cleaning wood planks from debris and dust.
- Surface waterproofing. It is carried out by attaching the film to a wooden plane using a construction stapler.
- Installation of a frame from a galvanized profile. Along the roof overhang and the lower part of the gable, guide profiles should be installed, which will serve as a support for the carriers.
- The casting bar is installed by fixing it on galvanized profiles using self-tapping screws with washers.
- Fastening metal slopes to the window opening. Wanting to equip the windows on the gables, it is necessary to fasten the finished elements to embedded profiles. To avoid moisture getting on the siding, at the connection points the profiles should not only be cut, but bent one on the other.
- Installation of the starting strip for siding. This element is fixed above the casting bar at a distance of 10 mm from it.
- Installation of the rest of the accessories for siding. In this case, the fastening is performed in the same way as in the case of the starting strip.
The final stage of siding the pediment – siding the frame. To do this, it is necessary to install the first bar in the guides, which are formed by the fittings, and then fix it to the profile through special holes.
The beautiful pediment is the hallmark of any home. Guided by the basic rules and recommendations for its self-production, as well as inspired by photographs of ready-made solutions, you can give the structure originality and a truly unique appearance.