What is The Most Fertile Soil

What is The Most Fertile Soil

Soil is the surface layer of land that is fertile. There are different types of soil, almost all of them are used in agriculture. Knowing the fundamental points about the characteristics of the soil, about which soil is the most fertile, and what to do to improve this unique quality, is extremely important for anyone involved in gardening and horticulture.

Clay soil

Work on the cultivation of vegetable and fruit crops on such soil requires a lot of effort, since:
despite the presence of a large amount of mineral compounds, they do not go well to plants, because:

  • the density of the soil is increased;
  • it is difficult to handle;
  • there is not enough oxygen in it and air circulation is difficult;
  • warming up is slow;
  • water stagnation is often observed on the surface since the soil has insufficient water permeability;
  • in hot weather, a hard crust forms on the soil surface.

It is easy to define this type: if a lump of moistened earth rolls into a rounded sausage, the ends of which are connected in a ring without any problems, then this is clay soil.

Increasing the fertility of clay soil

Peat, sand, lime, and ash – this is a list of those substances, the systematic introduction of which improves the structure of clay soil.

Peat acts as a loosening material that increases water-absorbing qualities. But it must be borne in mind that peat has a high acidity, therefore, lime, dolomite flour, or ash must be added with it for neutralization. Sand helps to loosen the soil.

River sand is recommended for introduction, but construction (quarry) sand is ineffective, since it does not pass air and water well, is practically not fertile, and contains clay.

Ash is an excellent nutrient enrichment for the earth, and lime helps to reduce acidity, increases air permeability.

The cultivation of clay soil is helped by the introduction of organic matter (preferably horse manure), the cultivation of green manure plants.

What to grow in clay soil

On cultivated clay soil, it is recommended to grow fruit trees, shrubs, as well as some vegetables – potatoes, beets, peas. For growing other crops, the following techniques are recommended:

  • landing in high ridges and ridges;
  • shallow embedding of seeds;
  • planting seedlings at an angle;
  • frequent loosening;
  • obligatory mulching.

The application of all these measures will help to increase the fertility of clay soil and the collection of excellent yields.

Sandy soil

Sandy soil

A dense lump of such soil is practically not formed. Sandy soil has its own quality pros and cons. Positive qualities include: This earth is classified as a lung type. Its external signs are looseness, flowability.

  • fast warming up;
  • easy moisture permeability;
  • good breathability.

At the same time, the sandy soil is characterized by rapid drying out, cooling, washing out of nutrients into the deep layers of the soil.

Cultivation of sandy soil

The fertility of this type of soil is increased by carrying out the following measures:

  • the systematic introduction of additives such as peat, compost, humus, clay or drill meal.
  • sowing green manure plants;
  • high-quality mulching.

If you systematically follow the advice given, then in 4-5 years the quality of the sandy soil will improve.

To create fertile ridges, many gardeners use the following method:

  • The place of the garden is fenced off.
  • A layer of clay is laid at the bottom of the fenced area.
  • At least 30 cm of imported sandy loam or loamy soil is poured on top of the clay.

Such artificial beds will allow you to get good yields in the shortest possible time and at the lowest cost.

What to grow on sandy soil

On sandy soil, you can get a good harvest of almost all garden crops, provided that frequent small doses of liquid dressings are carried out with fast-acting fertilizers.

Sandy loam soil

Sandy loam soil

In structure, it is light and resembles sandy soil, but with a large amount of clay inclusions. If a lump of moist soil from your site rolls into a round sausage, but it does not hold its shape well, crumbles, then you have sandy loam soil in your hands.

Therefore, it retains nutrients better, is able to retain heat and moisture for a long time.

On such soil, subject to the usual agrotechnical methods, all basic vegetables, as well as fruit crops, grow well.

To increase the fertility of sandy loam soils, it is necessary to systematically introduce a sufficient amount of organic matter, sow green manure, and high-quality mulching of plantings.

Loamy soil

A handful of loamy earth easily rolls into a sausage, keeps its shape well, but does not fold into a ring. The positive qualities of loamy soil include:

  • ease of processing;
  • a sufficient amount of nutrients;
  • good absorption and retention of moisture;
  • a sufficient amount of oxygen;
  • quick warm-up and slow cooling.

The structure of loamy soil does not require improvement, you just need to replenish the supply of nutrients by adding organic matter during digging (half a bucket per square meter), feeding the plants with mineral fertilizers, mulching plantings. On loam, almost all plants give a good harvest.

Lime soil

Calcareous soil is characterized by a light brownish tint, which becomes off-white after moistening. In its structure, it is very similar to sandy, but it is distinguished by a high content of lime. It also quickly overheats and dries out.

Plants on such soil suffer from a lack of iron and manganese, so their leaves turn yellow and poor growth is noted. Lime soil is alkaline in terms of acidity.

The introduction of a large amount of organic matter is the highest quality way to increase the fertility of the calcareous soil.

In the soil, organic matter is embedded not only during autumn digging but also by mulching the plant with humus.

Such soils are favorable for plants that prefer mild acidity. When growing crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce, it is recommended to apply fertilizers that can acidify the soil (urea, ammonium sulfate).

The cultivation of vegetable and horticultural crops on calcareous soils requires a large amount of watering, loosening, justified top dressing. This is a laborious process, but otherwise, it is impossible to get a decent harvest from calcareous soil.

Peat-boggy soil

Many people consider peat-boggy soil to be fertile. But this is a misconception. It is loose, permeable, but contains an insufficient amount of elements such as phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium, it dries quickly, it takes a long time to warm up.

The introduction of river sand improves the fertility of peat soils. In addition, the introduction of organic matter, microbiological additives, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, and clay is mandatory. Only then will the land become suitable for growing garden and vegetable garden plants.

They love peat soil and grow well on it such crops as gooseberries, currants, strawberries, chokeberry.

When growing other crops, it is recommended to use the method of artificial ridges with a clay interlayer and a bulk fertile top layer.

Black soil

The structure of chernozem is granular-lumpy, it has excellent water-absorbing and water-retaining capabilities, it contains a large amount of nutrients available to plants. Chernozem soils are considered the most fertile and potentially promising for agriculture, but, unfortunately, they are rarely found in household plots.

Therefore, the first 2-3 years of planting on black soil practically do not require additional fertilizing.

Over time, black soil, like other species, will become poorer, therefore, the introduction of organic matter during digging, sowing of green manure plants is necessary for him.

The definition of black soil is simple: a handful of earth strongly compressed in the hand leaves a bold imprint on the palm of your hand.

Expert opinion

It is better to choose just such plants because even improved clay soil gradually returns to its natural state, or special additives need to be applied regularly.

On these, not the most fertile soils, you can plant heart-leaved incense, honeysuckle, coreopsis, lungwort, ferns, Japanese spirea, Kuril tea.

In sandy lands, which also cannot be considered the most fertile soils, pines, and many other conifers, for example, juniper, develop well. Deciduous crops such as maple, willow, and buckthorn can also grow in infertile soil.

Among the ornamental shrubs, one can distinguish barberry, hawthorn, white turf, and snowberry. And among the fruits, gooseberries, raspberries, sea buckthorn, golden currants will take root.

Peat soil can be quite acidic. You need to choose plants that are suitable for such an environment, for example, plant blueberries or add ash, lime, or dolomite flour to the soil.

Although chernozems are considered the most fertile, they are not suitable for all crops. If plants, for example, mountain ones, prefer a light soil structure, appropriate rippers should be added to the black soil.

Soil is an amazing gift that nature has presented to people. It should be used wisely, keeping in mind that it takes millennia to form several centimeters of fertile soil.

Therefore, everyone who is engaged in agriculture should understand that along with the task of obtaining an excellent harvest, they must take good care of the land in order to preserve it for future generations.


  1. T

    Tracy on October 2021 2021

    By right, black soil can be called the most fertile soil in the world. It was formed in a temperate climate, with a normal amount of atmospheric precipitation. The topmost fertile layer of chernozem is called humus. It is thanks to humus that chernozem is very fertile and most suitable for agriculture. The fertility of chernozem is measured on a 100 point scale. This is called the soil bonitet. This indicator in chernozem soils ranges from 90 to 100 points.

  2. D

    Dorothy October 2021

    Mom takes soil for flowers and always mixes it with sand, at first, of course, I did not understand why she was doing this, now I understand. But if I understand correctly, then such soil needs to be replaced more often?

  3. J

    Jessica October 2021

    Hello Tracy! Sand is often added to potting soil mixtures. This makes the substrate lighter and more moisture-permeable improves air access to the roots. It is important to disinfect this element either separately or already in the composition of the earthen mixture.

    This is especially true if ordinary river sand, collected by hand, is used. The amount of that element depends on the needs and characteristics of the plant. As a rule, adding sand to the soil for the house plant does not affect the frequency of replacing the substrate. Especially if the care of the crop is correct, the fertilizing is done according to the schedule, and the transplants are timely.


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