From this article you can find out what a cutting element is like a wood milling cutter for wood router. The text sets out a detailed classification of products: the main varieties and features of parts, their technical characteristics and practical use. The article contains useful recommendations that will help determine the choice of cutters for a hand tool.
What is a milling cutter , what is the purpose of this cutting element
Manual milling machine is a convenient and effective tool designed for processing lumber, including shaped, as well as flat surfaces. In addition, this device is suitable for forming various technological grooves, for example, grooves, ridges, recesses for installing loops. To do this, it is enough to buy cutters of the appropriate configuration. Each such element has individual structural features and is used to perform certain functions.
Purpose of a manual mill on a tree:
- Edge processing – it is supposed to use a mill for splicing wood for a manual mill, when it is necessary to connect different workpieces to each other by connecting a tenon / groove.
- Insert hinges and other fittings.
- Decoration – in this case, the cutters are used to form three-dimensional shapes on the surface of flat products, as well as for the manufacture of wooden blanks with a complex configuration.
Professionals know dozens of options for using milling cutters on a manual milling cutter. However, in order to correctly determine the choice of cutting parts for the tool, it is advisable to study the official classification of existing products. Having figured out what milling cutters are and the features of their use, it will be much easier to make a choice.
First of all, you need to pay attention to the unit of measurement of the diameter of the shank. For this, millimeters or inches can be used. The unit of measurement depends on the type of collets that are included in the milling cutter package. These components are designed to clamp the shank. If the size is calculated in millimeters, then the most common options are products with a diameter of 6, 12 and 8 mm. If inches are taken as the unit of measure, in this case it will be possible to buy mills for the manual milling cutter in just two sizes – ½ and ¼.
Note!It is impossible to combine a millimeter shaft and an inch collet and vice versa. This may cause the tool to break.
Types of milling cutters for wood milling: types of designs
The market offers dozens of product options for various purposes and cost. If we consider the structural features of the cutting elements, we can distinguish the following types of milling cutters for wood for manual milling:
- Prefabricated – have the appearance of a blank with welded cutting edges. These cutters are very easy to manufacture, so most of the products on the market have a similar design.
- With interchangeable edges – products are equipped with interchangeable cutting edges with double-sided sharpening. When the knife dulls on one side, the cutter can be turned over and used further.
- Monolithic – milling cutters, at the base of which cutting edges are machined. They rarely break, but after a few sharpenings, the part will have to be changed.
Types of wood mills cutters: classification of products by type of blades
Milling cutters can have a vertical, spiral or inclined arrangement of blades. Products with straight edges will cut down pieces of wood from the workpiece, which increases the likelihood that chips will appear during the cutting process. As a result of this, the milling quality is significantly reduced. With inclined blades this does not happen.
Consumers can buy wood cutters with two types of blades:
- Quick cutting – used on surfaces made of softwood.
- Carbide-tipped – used to treat hard surfaces.
Products with carbide blades have a higher temperature coefficient and have improved characteristics, which affects their cost.
Classification of mills cutters: overview of the main varieties of products
Milling cutters are rotational parts dotted with teeth. These items are available in various configurations. Milling cutters can be used for processing metal and plastic surfaces, but most often they are used for working with wood.
The following types of products are distinguished:
- Roughing end mill
- Slab mill
- End mill cutter
- Hollow mill
- Ball mill cutter
- Involute gear cutter
- Face mill cutter
- Wood ruff cutter
- Thread mill cutter
- Fly cutter
- Slide and face cutter
- Hobbing cutter
- Dovetail cutter
Helpful advice! If you regularly lubricate the thrust bearing, you can extend the life of the part.
Features of wood end mills cutters for hand tools
Wood end mills cutters for hand milling machines have cutting edges on the end side of the working part. However, they work not only through the use of axial load. These milling cutters also use side edges, due to which it becomes possible to move the rotational element in the plane of the supporting platform on the milling cutter. As a result of this, various samples and grooves in the wood can be obtained. Such parts may have a different number of cutting edges, which affects the purity of processing.
In most cases, end mills have a monolithic design, but sometimes you can also find composite ones, for example, castellated, used as mills for a drill on wood. This option is used in cases where there is no hand milling cutter at hand.
This product category includes the following varieties of cutters:
End mills on wood are used to form grooves of various configurations and sizes. They are suitable not only for the manufacture of wooden products, but also for creating spike / groove joints. Therefore, end mills are often classified as groove products.
Profile milling cutters represent an extensive group of components for performing such tasks:
- end part processing;
- the formation of grooves with a complex configuration;
- surface decoration with ornaments.
Wood borers also has another name – cones. They are intended for making holes with a specific configuration. Such cutters are used in the intermediate processing step. In addition, they can be used to finalize the configuration of some parts.
Classification of edge milling cutters for wood milling
Edge milling cutters are the most common group, since hand tools are most often used precisely for the manufacture of edges on products made of wood. Even in large sets, the main part of the parts are edge milling cutters. This option is more preferable for home masters. It’s easier to buy a set of milling cutters for wood for a manual milling cutter than to select these elements one at a time.
This group includes:
- profile – to give the edges of the product an intricate shape;
- molding or shaped – to round the edge, while obtaining a convex shape on ¼ circumference;
- conical – designed for chamfering at an angle, the most common option is 45 °;
- wood milling cutters – for forming grooves in the edge part of the product;
- folded – designed to select a quarter in the edge of the product;
- fillet – used to make grooves in the edge at ¼ circumference;
- figured – are intended for the manufacture of edge panels.
In most cases, edge mills are equipped with a thrust bearing. This element limits the movement of the tool, preventing it from deepening into the wood. In this case, the cutting part of the part can be located above or below the bearing. By setting the tool support pad to a specific position, you can adjust the depth of cutter reach.
Helpful advice! If the cutter makes large slices, it is advisable to carry out the product processing in several stages, each time deepening it into the material until the thrust bearing works.
In some cases, the bearing in the design of the cutter is missing. To work with such a part, you will need a template and a copy sleeve or a parallel emphasis. The size of the milling cutters depends on the height of the cutting part. If the profile has several roundings, then the manufacturer indicates the dimensions of the largest diameter that can be obtained using such a part. Moreover, the distance between the cutting parts can be adjusted at your discretion.
Horizontal type milling cutters have a large diameter and weight. Such elements require a lot of cutting effort, for this reason they are made exclusively with a 12 mm shank. These cutters are designed for milling machines with a fixed structure.
Classification of groove milling cutters for wood milling
The main purpose of a grooving cutter for wood is to make grooves in wood – grooves.
There are several varieties of such milling cutters:
- fillet – these parts are intended for the manufacture of semicircular grooves;
- conical – elements are used for threading on flat surfaces;
- wood spiral milling cutters for hand milling cutters – in many ways similar to end elements. However, they have a more pronounced cutting edge located on the outside. In fact, the design of a spiral mill on a tree resembles a drill;
- T-shaped cutters for forming grooves of the corresponding form;
- dovetail elements;
- straight groove cutters for wood – cylindrical parts forming a groove with a rectangular cross section;
- combined – milling cutters are used to connect large-sized wooden panels.
Combination elements include tenon / groove cutters. Most often, these elements have a monolithic design, but there are also options equipped with carbide cutting edges. They are used for splicing workpieces.
Copy milling cutters or straight lines are the smallest group of accessories for a manual milling cutter. Between themselves, these parts differ in the number of cutting edges, dimensions, as well as the nature of the placement of thrust surfaces and bearings, which can be located both above and below. There are options with double-sided placement in relation to the cutting part. During operation, the bearing moves according to a pattern, which makes it possible to obtain a part of the required configuration from the workpiece.
The head of fillet milling cutters has a rounded shape. The sectional groove resulting from its use looks like the letter “U”. The walls of the recess can be rounded immediately at the surface itself or for some time be located at right angles. It depends on the depth of cut.
Note! Despite the fact that the “fillet” is considered to be a semicircular recess, milling cutters forming a V-shaped groove are also included in this category. If during the work it is required to produce grooves with different angles of inclination of the walls, it is desirable to have an appropriate set of milling cutters for wood for a manual milling cutter, where cutting elements of different configurations are present.
Wood milling cutter: choosing the optimal set for your job
Buying the right woodworking tool does not guarantee a great result. In order for the material processing to be accurate and high quality, it is advisable to purchase good equipment. For this purpose, sets of milling cutters for wood are designed for manual milling, which include a set of cutting parts suitable for certain tasks.
Which is better to buy wood cutters for manual milling
When choosing equipment for a manual milling machine, you need to pay attention to the main criteria:
- The level of thermal strength.
- Type of connection of the cutting part with the shank.
- Solder material.
Before you buy a set of cutters for wood, you should pay attention to the quality of soldering. It must be designed so that during prolonged use the tool does not lose its longitudinal stability. This is especially true for those cases when the work uses products made from hardwood, such as pears, hornbeams, oak, etc.
Monolithic cutters also need to be checked for hardness of the material of manufacture. This operation can be done at home. To do this, just go through the working part of the cutter with a calibrated file. If there are no visible marks on the surface, then the element is made of quality material. The optimum hardness is 58-62 HRC.
Note! The quality of work also depends on the availability of additional devices. Therefore, it is advisable to purchase a set of patterns and stops.
An overview of the Encore catalog for hand milling machines
Very often, manufacturers offer masters to purchase a ready-made kit designed to perform the same type of work. For example, some Encore wood milling cutters for manual milling are combined into sets that allow you to get a specific result. Such kits are used to make identical joints or wooden products. Moreover, in the second case, the cutters allow you to complete a complete processing cycle.
In the catalog of Encore cutters, there are sets with a different number of elements. For example, a kit consisting of two combined frame cutters with a 12 mm shank can be used to create frame products. These elements are not only designed to form an inner edge. They can be used as cutters for angular splicing for a hand mill.
With this set you can create not only frame products, for example, thin bindings of windows, but also merge wooden boards into large panels.
Of course, each of the milling cutters of this set can act as an independent element, with which you can perform other operations on the processing of wooden products.
Consumers can buy a set of milling cutters for wood Enkor for the manufacture of lining. Using these elements, you can form the edge of wooden products, which can subsequently be used for interior decoration. In addition, the manufacturer offers sets of decorative cutters, which can include from 4 to 12 elements with various configurations. The average price of sets is in the range from 20 to 119$.
Overview of the catalog of milling cutters for wood milling cutter SMT
Products of the Italian manufacturer SMT are in high demand among consumers. On sale are individual cutting elements and entire sets designed to perform various tasks.
The catalog contains the following types of SMT milling cutters for wood for manual milling:
- groove and end;
- for furniture and splicing;
- T-shaped and “Dovetail”;
- edging molding;
- planing and beveling.
The kits that the manufacturer offers are designed to perform certain types of work or to form specific compounds. The buyer can purchase a ready-made kit designed for the manufacture of doors, furniture facades, lining, bindings and various bindings. The cost of sets varies between 81-906$.
Buying hand mills for wood: the price of popular types of products
Wood milling cutters are not only suitable for the manufacture of solid wood products. These elements can be used for processing such lumber as plywood, chipboard, veneer, fiberboard, etc.
Average prices for Encore cutters:
|Cutter view||Type||Price $|
|Mortise||Fillet V-shaped||from 2,63|
|Structural T-shaped||from 2,87|
|Moulting adjustable||from 21,34|
The existing range of accessories for hand milling has several classification options. These products differ in design, tooth structure, and manufacturing material. Having chosen a milling cutter with the necessary characteristics, it is possible to create an edge, grooves, ledges, grooves and other elements of the desired size and configuration in a wooden blank. In addition, cutting parts are used to install various functional and structural elements. For example, hinges, locks, latches.